BOW
bow position
22
Daniil Shafran
This study is designed specifically to practice the intense “détaché,” a rapid change of strings, and the coordination that should exist between the bow and the left hand. For a good control of the sound, one should pay particular attention to the place where the bow should bounce; the low sounds will arise closer to the heel of the bow, and they will become more acute the further the point of contact slides, until one reaches the point of balance, half-way through the bow.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
48
Anner Bylsma
The purpose of this study is to work with the left hand on the first 4 positions. The sort of stroke one has to use is a combination of détaché on the string with a lighter sautillé. The simultaneous semi-quavers and quavers make more evident the work on the difference of a shorter bow for the first ones and another slightly longer for the second ones.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
49
Leonard Rose
The study proposes to recover the bow-frog, by using a technique whereby the bow is associated with a pickup beat in a baroque context where one will work on the technique of the quick détaché.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
59
Philippe Müller
This study could be called a Fandango. Double strings are works in this piece, mainly in intervals of 6th. One needs to reposition the bow heel in order to achieve a rhythmic doubling of the semi- quavers in “détaché,” the way it appears in some quintet of the beloved Luigi Boccherini. A few passages will also exist, where the accent is placed on a change of strings where one must achieve a good elbow height, to obtain a good sound quality for all the strings.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
bow stroke of 1 note for 2
15
Heinz Seiber
A study designed to obtain the best movement of the whole arm in the bow, through well-defined changes of strings, from the 4th to the 2nd and from the 4th to the 1st. This is achieved through a “lame” bow stroke of 1 note versus 2. The use of harmonics gives the study an interesting flavor and entails a connection between the first positions and the harmonics of the La and Re strings.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
19
Pau Casals
This study is a well-deserved acknowledgment of Pau Casals, who may very well have been the greatest cello player of all times, as well as a great promoter of the Bach Suites throughout the world. Composed in the “Baroque Bach-like” style, it presents alternate quavers with semi-quavers in gradual ensembles, and with frequent changes of strings between the 1st and 3rd and back. Free bow strokes will be used, combining one for two, zero for three. It is highly recommendable to practice this exercise before tackling Bach. Attacking the notes, for a better articulation, will yield an interesting result if combined with a good vibrato, which will soften it, thereby generating a good resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
47
Imre Hartman
This study works mainly on the change of strings, but in this case one will start from the high part 0f the 1st string, all the way to the low part of the 4th. One will build up strokes of 1 note for 2 linked notes staccato; some passages will be dealt in the reverse mode. A light right elbow is essential for a good control of the bow, as well as is the work done by the right index to “lift up the weight of the bow” and let the strings resonate.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
52
Yo Yo Ma
Yo Yo Ma is considered today as the best cello player in the world. His renown is due to his versatility as he explores various musical genres, and to the fact that he possesses an immense mastery of the instrument in all its aspects. YoY o Ma’s human quality is another factor that has to be underlined and from which most of us can learn. The content of the bow strokes gathered in this study varies a lot; it goes from opposing one free dotted note played up (“push”) for 2 linked notes also played up, 2 linked notes for 2 dotted linked notes, notes separated over two strings, as well as separated notes in spiccato and others in détaché. Also, one can play contrapuntal imitations, as well as intervals of 10o, 9o, and 8o, which will induce many changes of strings. In this study, one can feel a certain “Mexican Paganini.”
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
62
André Navarra
André Navarra, a great cello player born in Bayonne on October 13, 1911, the same day of the year as Jacques Doué in 1930, is the inspiration for the technique object of this study, related to the practice of string changes, following a melodic line of widely separated intervals. A great variety of articulations will be used here: accents, separated notes, détaché bow techniques, spiccato, and bow strikes of 1 note for 2 linked notes.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
66
Valentin Mirkov
A study that focuses on simultaneously asymmetrical strikes of 1 note played upward (pull) for 2 linked notes played downward (push). This combination is repeated and on the last part of the beat a change is made to 2 free notes. This formula stays as such during all the study, which is not the only difficulty, as a second difficulty is added in the “change of strings hacia la punta”. The movement of the elbow should be as fluid as possible during the whole process. The vibrato is possible all through the study.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
bow stroke of 1 note for 3
10
Paul Tortelier
In this étude, bow strokes of 1 note versus 3 are interspersed with accents and changes of strings. A good use of the right elbow, together with the flexibility of hand and fingers, will allow for a well-balanced bow and no strokes, thereby avoiding the famous “syndrome of the donkey”.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
13
Aldo Parisot
This study is made of a succession of harmonious connections, using bow strokes of two linked notes, as well as 1 versus 3, working on the change of strings and on the complete handling of position changes in the left hand. One should note the curved trajectory of the right elbow necessary to change strings in a perfect manner; here it becomes fundamental to anticipate the movement of the elbow,
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
19
Pau Casals
This study is a well-deserved acknowledgment of Pau Casals, who may very well have been the greatest cello player of all times, as well as a great promoter of the Bach Suites throughout the world. Composed in the “Baroque Bach-like” style, it presents alternate quavers with semi-quavers in gradual ensembles, and with frequent changes of strings between the 1st and 3rd and back. Free bow strokes will be used, combining one for two, zero for three. It is highly recommendable to practice this exercise before tackling Bach. Attacking the notes, for a better articulation, will yield an interesting result if combined with a good vibrato, which will soften it, thereby generating a good resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
23
Xavier Gagnepain
A special study, for wobbling bow strokes of 1 note for 6, 3 for 1, 1 for 3, and 1 for 4. The feeling of the phrases and sub-phrases is made evident for a musically fine interpretation.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
24
Eduardo Vassallo
“Perpetuum mobile” study with a model of wobbling bow stroke of 1 note for 3, the remaining 2 being played free in a spiccato. Each beat is ideal to work on the changes of strings and the movement of the elbow with the bow. The resonance with vibrato, in the notes played apart as well as for the ones played together, underlines the richness of the timbre of this study.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
28
Emanuel Feuermann
A study in honor of Emmanuel Feuerman, considered as the cello player the most proficient in “passing the bow,” as his changes were imperceptible, when going from high position to low, as well as from low to high. Here we have various types of strokes: 2 linked notes for two free notes, all the way to 3 linked for 3 free or vice-versa, including also the strokes of 1 for 3.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
41
Jacqueline du Pré
3 techniques are worked on in this study: the first is related to a large change of strings from the 4th to the 1st, as well as from the 3rd to the 1st; then we have 1 loose note for 3 linked notes; finally, we work on loose strokes “en détaché.”
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
46
Álvaro Bitran
This study proposes an ample variety of bow strokes: linked 3 for 3, linked 2 for 2, “lame” 1 for 3 and 1 for 5. The cantabile character of the piece invites us to keep the vibrato alive.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
50
Lynn Harrell
The purpose of this study is aimed at the bow. One will combine 2 types of strokes in each beat: 1 note for 3 linked notes, completing the movement with 4 separate notes “en détaché” but with a legato character, keeping a constant change of strings.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
51
Maja Bogdanovic
In this study, you will work of a uniform bow stroke of one free note for 3 linked notes, but which are to be picked towards the highest, and completed by 2 free notes, played without skipping from one to the next, and which are the real conduct for the melodic line in each beat. You will also work on 3 linked notes for 3 free notes, using part of the high register of the instrument, which needs another sort of contact of the bow with the strings, to pick up the high notes. The bow is moving less for these staccato. In order for these notes to give out a good sound, they will have to be touched in different ways, according to the tessitura and to the length of the strings.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
64
Stefan Popov
This study is designed to practice several types of bow strikes, which go from 1 note for 3 linked notes staccato, or just linked in a unique beat, alternating them with light strikes of 2 for 2 in the following beat. Further one, this combination will have 1 note for 7 linked notes, and finally 5 free notes for 3 linked notes. The meter can be every two beats or every beat, according to the musical phrase.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
73
Sally Van den Berg
I dedicate this study to Sally Van den Berg, who was not only a great cellist, but also a very good oboe player, and who was recognized as one of the most accomplished musicians ever. The study is composed in a baroque style, alternating phrases in lose notes in détaché with progressive passages of 1 not by 3 linked ones and vice versa. The musical progressions come one after the other and produce a stupendous musicality. They must be practices again and again to achieve a greater quality of interpretation.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
bow stroke of 1 note for 4
23
Xavier Gagnepain
A special study, for wobbling bow strokes of 1 note for 6, 3 for 1, 1 for 3, and 1 for 4. The feeling of the phrases and sub-phrases is made evident for a musically fine interpretation.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
35
Janos Starker
A study dedicated to a great cello player who knew how to combine precise technique with exquisite interpretation. What is more, among his many virtues, he could use the best bow techniques “en détaché”, what he used to call “the cut of the string.” So, this study, works of a loose stroke, “en détaché,” combining various types of strokes, with one loose note for 4 notes linked in spiccato.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
43
Ignacio Mariscal
A special study to work on asymmetrical strokes of 1 note for 4, together with changes of the free strings. This type of stroke must be done very lightly as one pushes (up-bow) and without going too far, thereby avoiding to accentuate the first note of the following beat.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
45
Carlos Prieto
A study composed in a baroque style. “Lame” strokes are used, 2 linked notes versus 1, 1 versus 4, and 1 versus 5. One can also practice changes of strings, paying attention to the musicality of two entities.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ####. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
bow stroke of 1 note for 5
21
Gaspar Cassadó
In this study we have a great variety of bow strokes, starting with 6 linked notes, 3 linked notes for 3 notes apart, until one reaches various “wobbling” 1 note strokes for 5 linked note and vice-versa; string changes are also practiced. The musical discourse, with such a variety of strokes, mixes well with strong musical emphasis in a number of notes, to obtain really elegant passages, in the very spirit of Maestro Gaspar Cassádo.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
42
Asier Polo
The objective of this study is the change of strings of 3 linked notes by pulling (down-bow) for 3 free notes, also while changing strings. This is to be complemented by symmetrical bow strokes 3 by 3, and with “lame” strokes of 1 note for 5. One should pay special attention to the “syndrome of the donkey”; that is to say one should avoid pulling on the 1st of the 3 free notes.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
46
Álvaro Bitran
This study proposes an ample variety of bow strokes: linked 3 for 3, linked 2 for 2, “lame” 1 for 3 and 1 for 5. The cantabile character of the piece invites us to keep the vibrato alive.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
54
Alfredo Piatti
This study deals with a sort of stroke of one note played down (“pull”) for 5 linked notes played up (“push”) in staccato, which is hardly conventional. You will need a great virtuosity to execute it, and even more when many string changes happen in the middle of it. By placing the right elbow in the right positions, this study will be made that much easier.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
63
Johann Sebastian Bach
A study inspired by a famous prelude for piano composed by thios famous musician. We will try to develop a ritenuto legato played up (pushed). The “perpetuum mobile” will be achieved in the following way: 1 free note “pushed”, for 5 notes “pushed”, adding 2 free notes with a change of strings. We should pay special attention so the end of each beat should not be excessively accentuated, just as it appears in the prelude to the Suite in Sol Major.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
bow stroke of 1 note for 6
23
Xavier Gagnepain
A special study, for wobbling bow strokes of 1 note for 6, 3 for 1, 1 for 3, and 1 for 4. The feeling of the phrases and sub-phrases is made evident for a musically fine interpretation.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
bow stroke of 1 note for 7
64
Stefan Popov
This study is designed to practice several types of bow strikes, which go from 1 note for 3 linked notes staccato, or just linked in a unique beat, alternating them with light strikes of 2 for 2 in the following beat. Further one, this combination will have 1 note for 7 linked notes, and finally 5 free notes for 3 linked notes. The meter can be every two beats or every beat, according to the musical phrase.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
bow stroke of 2 notes for 1
45
Carlos Prieto
A study composed in a baroque style. “Lame” strokes are used, 2 linked notes versus 1, 1 versus 4, and 1 versus 5. One can also practice changes of strings, paying attention to the musicality of two entities.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ####. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
bow stroke of 2 notes for 2
6
Lluís Claret
This étude shows the types of bow stroke most often used, i.e. that of two linked notes for 2 separated notes, on top of a constant change of strings. The tempo allows for a vibration of almost all the notes, and because of the slight modifications of tempo [agógica] the musical supports give the impression that some notes last longer than their real value, catching up with the notes that follow.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
7
Leopoldo Téllez
The purpose of this study is the alternation of the free spiccato and the legato in groups of bow strokes linked 2 for 2, as well as a constant change of strings. The index of the right hand does strenuous work, lifting the weight of the bow to separate it from the strimg, thereby obtaining a richer resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
17
Mischa Maisky
In this study, one will use a series of strokes of two linked notes for two separated notes, and the resulting “perpetuum mobile” motif changes strings continuously, resulting in ascending arpeggios then following them in descending order. It is of the utmost importance to lower the right elbow every time one reaches the lower strings. Anticipating this is primordial.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
20
Natalia Gutman
In fact this study could be considered as a prelude to some suite by Bach. Various types of strokes are used, the most common being that of 2 linked notes for 2 separated ones, and vice-versa. One should pay attention to the height reached by the right elbow, especially in relation with the La string, which is quite necessary to obtain a good sound.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
28
Emanuel Feuermann
A study in honor of Emmanuel Feuerman, considered as the cello player the most proficient in “passing the bow,” as his changes were imperceptible, when going from high position to low, as well as from low to high. Here we have various types of strokes: 2 linked notes for two free notes, all the way to 3 linked for 3 free or vice-versa, including also the strokes of 1 for 3.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
40
Jian Wang
This study, which develops a musical motif, is designed to practice the 8o with the left hand, its style being easy on the bow for light strokes of 2 for 2, which induce an interesting connection between the various 8ths, succeeding each other in groups.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
46
Álvaro Bitran
This study proposes an ample variety of bow strokes: linked 3 for 3, linked 2 for 2, “lame” 1 for 3 and 1 for 5. The cantabile character of the piece invites us to keep the vibrato alive.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
64
Stefan Popov
This study is designed to practice several types of bow strikes, which go from 1 note for 3 linked notes staccato, or just linked in a unique beat, alternating them with light strikes of 2 for 2 in the following beat. Further one, this combination will have 1 note for 7 linked notes, and finally 5 free notes for 3 linked notes. The meter can be every two beats or every beat, according to the musical phrase.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
71
Frédéric Lodéon
This study tackles the sort of strikes of 2 linked notes for 2 separated notes, with one of the most common strikes as a result, but when multiple changes of strings are done, this becomes a rather difficult exercise. So, it is necessary to anticipate each change of strings rather early. In this case, the 2 separated notes can be played in staccato, to give them more character.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
75
Steven Sharp
“Perpetuum mobile” study to practice the spiccato, with high speed string changes. Also included are a couple of contrasting fragments of notes linked 2 for 2. For the left hand, this exercise will also be useful in that it offers the possibility of a total change of position in the 4 strings. Lots of work is needed to obtain a clean sound between the strings, the low sounds appearing at end of each beat.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
85
Jimena Giménez Cacho
A study where the first 5 positions of the left hand are used, and various types of strikes for the bow: free notes, linked two for two, 3 linked for 1, etc. It’s a good exercise for intermediate levels and to work on the tonality of the Mi Flat Major.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
87
Gautier Capuçon
In this study, we will work double strings in 6o, with constant changes of strings, in loose strokes. I also have included strokes of linked strings going 2 for 2. The variety of the strokes demands that one should make the difference between what is linked, what is loose but skipped, and what is linked but plucked.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
90
Jacques Doué
A melodic and light study, dedicated to Jacques Doué, the old master of Iñaki Etxepare, it promotes the use of technique to produce great music, using a stroke of 2 linked notes against two notes linked in staccato, with constant changes of strings. The differentiation of the link between the first 2 notes and the 4 last notes of each beat (which have to be felt with balzato, at a deeper level), leaves a variety of unique articulation between the notes, which are linked 2 by 2.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
bow stroke of 3 notes for 3
21
Gaspar Cassadó
In this study we have a great variety of bow strokes, starting with 6 linked notes, 3 linked notes for 3 notes apart, until one reaches various “wobbling” 1 note strokes for 5 linked note and vice-versa; string changes are also practiced. The musical discourse, with such a variety of strokes, mixes well with strong musical emphasis in a number of notes, to obtain really elegant passages, in the very spirit of Maestro Gaspar Cassádo.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
28
Emanuel Feuermann
A study in honor of Emmanuel Feuerman, considered as the cello player the most proficient in “passing the bow,” as his changes were imperceptible, when going from high position to low, as well as from low to high. Here we have various types of strokes: 2 linked notes for two free notes, all the way to 3 linked for 3 free or vice-versa, including also the strokes of 1 for 3.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
42
Asier Polo
The objective of this study is the change of strings of 3 linked notes by pulling (down-bow) for 3 free notes, also while changing strings. This is to be complemented by symmetrical bow strokes 3 by 3, and with “lame” strokes of 1 note for 5. One should pay special attention to the “syndrome of the donkey”; that is to say one should avoid pulling on the 1st of the 3 free notes.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
46
Álvaro Bitran
This study proposes an ample variety of bow strokes: linked 3 for 3, linked 2 for 2, “lame” 1 for 3 and 1 for 5. The cantabile character of the piece invites us to keep the vibrato alive.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
51
Maja Bogdanovic
In this study, you will work of a uniform bow stroke of one free note for 3 linked notes, but which are to be picked towards the highest, and completed by 2 free notes, played without skipping from one to the next, and which are the real conduct for the melodic line in each beat. You will also work on 3 linked notes for 3 free notes, using part of the high register of the instrument, which needs another sort of contact of the bow with the strings, to pick up the high notes. The bow is moving less for these staccato. In order for these notes to give out a good sound, they will have to be touched in different ways, according to the tessitura and to the length of the strings.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
56
Inbal Segev
This study concentrates on the loose bow stroke in détaché, also using several changes of strings, due to the presence of a short passage where one must use a variation of this stroke of three linked notes for three notes set apart. One must maintain the vibrato and constantly control the height of the right elbow
Tempo: Vivo. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
57
Marta Roma
A perpetual study with constant changes of strings. One will work on the stroke of three linked notes for three linked notes in spiccato, which will resound greatly. In the same manner, one will observe the “leaping” stroke of three linked notes played up (“push”). The curve followed by the right elbow, from the low to the high strings, will have to be maintained constantly.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
bow stroke of 4 notes for 4
89
Maurice Maréchal
This study is interesting in that it takes one to make up for the “lame” bow stroke of 5 linked notes for 3 loose ones, which necessitates going softly on the 3 loose notes. It also comprises linked strokes of 4 notes for 4 notes. The left hand will follow a model mandated by the practice of the trill and the simplification of the exercise of the 3rd and 4th fingers.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
bow stroke of 5 notes for 3
57
Marta Roma
A perpetual study with constant changes of strings. One will work on the stroke of three linked notes for three linked notes in spiccato, which will resound greatly. In the same manner, one will observe the “leaping” stroke of three linked notes played up (“push”). The curve followed by the right elbow, from the low to the high strings, will have to be maintained constantly.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
58
Victor Manuel Cortés
A study in speed. Developping dexterity for both hands. For the strokes, one will use a spiccato of 5 loose notes for 3 linked notes. The left hand will help in the practice of trills and will build up progressive passages of spiccato notes in increasing technical complexity. The laying of the loose and linked notes in a rapid tempo and in a continuous manner makes it mandatory to look for the differences between them otherwise the structure of the piece would be lost.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
64
Stefan Popov
This study is designed to practice several types of bow strikes, which go from 1 note for 3 linked notes staccato, or just linked in a unique beat, alternating them with light strikes of 2 for 2 in the following beat. Further one, this combination will have 1 note for 7 linked notes, and finally 5 free notes for 3 linked notes. The meter can be every two beats or every beat, according to the musical phrase.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
89
Maurice Maréchal
This study is interesting in that it takes one to make up for the “lame” bow stroke of 5 linked notes for 3 loose ones, which necessitates going softly on the 3 loose notes. It also comprises linked strokes of 4 notes for 4 notes. The left hand will follow a model mandated by the practice of the trill and the simplification of the exercise of the 3rd and 4th fingers.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
détaché
1
Iñaki Etxepare
A comprehensive étude for the bow as well as for the left hand. It provides several techniques whereby two notes light bow strokes are linked with two legatos played staccato, with a change of strings. The spiccato bow technique is used as well as the détaché, with sections played on two strings, allowing for a full use of the register of the instrument. One should look for resonance as well as vibrato so that the sound comes out all the richer.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
12
Mstislav Rostropóvich
Set up in a high register, this study was inspired by the great cello artist Mstislav Rostropovich, who was an absolute master of the cello’s high and very high registers. One will use only positions of the thumb, as a practical bow used “en détaché.” The “hand should be held flush against the high diapason (interval)”, in the manner prescribed to his pupils by this great master. The acute tessitura is an invitation to keep a point of contact of the bow close to the bridge.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ##. Nivel: Medium-high.
14
Pieter Wispelwey
This is a “perpetuum mobile” étude, designed to train in the technique of bow “en détaché” as Paganini used to play. It’s also very good to train the left hand, sliding it rapidly from one position to the next, and to work on the coordination between the bow and the left hand. It is very useful to slide the main accent from 1234 to 2341, 3412, and 4123. Changing rhythm is advised in order to obtain a good coordimation.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
16
Anne Gastinel
A study that proposes to work on the bow technique “en détaché,” combining descending and ascending bow changes. Its execution can be made on the string o with spiccato, the two techniques giving two different interpretative versions.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
22
Daniil Shafran
This study is designed specifically to practice the intense “détaché,” a rapid change of strings, and the coordination that should exist between the bow and the left hand. For a good control of the sound, one should pay particular attention to the place where the bow should bounce; the low sounds will arise closer to the heel of the bow, and they will become more acute the further the point of contact slides, until one reaches the point of balance, half-way through the bow.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
30
Arturo Toscanini
Here we will work on a rapid and energetic change of strings, with a technique of stroke “en détaché,” with a feeling for the various phrases that is very important to discern the implied various grades of intensity.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
35
Janos Starker
A study dedicated to a great cello player who knew how to combine precise technique with exquisite interpretation. What is more, among his many virtues, he could use the best bow techniques “en détaché”, what he used to call “the cut of the string.” So, this study, works of a loose stroke, “en détaché,” combining various types of strokes, with one loose note for 4 notes linked in spiccato.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
37
Antonio Vivaldi
A study composed in the Baroque style. The bow stroke will be worked loosely, “en détaché,” while some short fragments will use another type of stroke. Two personas can be heard in this study, which is usual in many pieces of Antonio Vivaldi. The “vivaldian” character, played “Mexican style” can be heard throughout the whole study.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
41
Jacqueline du Pré
3 techniques are worked on in this study: the first is related to a large change of strings from the 4th to the 1st, as well as from the 3rd to the 1st; then we have 1 loose note for 3 linked notes; finally, we work on loose strokes “en détaché.”
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
48
Anner Bylsma
The purpose of this study is to work with the left hand on the first 4 positions. The sort of stroke one has to use is a combination of détaché on the string with a lighter sautillé. The simultaneous semi-quavers and quavers make more evident the work on the difference of a shorter bow for the first ones and another slightly longer for the second ones.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
49
Leonard Rose
The study proposes to recover the bow-frog, by using a technique whereby the bow is associated with a pickup beat in a baroque context where one will work on the technique of the quick détaché.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
50
Lynn Harrell
The purpose of this study is aimed at the bow. One will combine 2 types of strokes in each beat: 1 note for 3 linked notes, completing the movement with 4 separate notes “en détaché” but with a legato character, keeping a constant change of strings.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
52
Yo Yo Ma
Yo Yo Ma is considered today as the best cello player in the world. His renown is due to his versatility as he explores various musical genres, and to the fact that he possesses an immense mastery of the instrument in all its aspects. YoY o Ma’s human quality is another factor that has to be underlined and from which most of us can learn. The content of the bow strokes gathered in this study varies a lot; it goes from opposing one free dotted note played up (“push”) for 2 linked notes also played up, 2 linked notes for 2 dotted linked notes, notes separated over two strings, as well as separated notes in spiccato and others in détaché. Also, one can play contrapuntal imitations, as well as intervals of 10o, 9o, and 8o, which will induce many changes of strings. In this study, one can feel a certain “Mexican Paganini.”
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
56
Inbal Segev
This study concentrates on the loose bow stroke in détaché, also using several changes of strings, due to the presence of a short passage where one must use a variation of this stroke of three linked notes for three notes set apart. One must maintain the vibrato and constantly control the height of the right elbow
Tempo: Vivo. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
59
Philippe Müller
This study could be called a Fandango. Double strings are works in this piece, mainly in intervals of 6th. One needs to reposition the bow heel in order to achieve a rhythmic doubling of the semi- quavers in “détaché,” the way it appears in some quintet of the beloved Luigi Boccherini. A few passages will also exist, where the accent is placed on a change of strings where one must achieve a good elbow height, to obtain a good sound quality for all the strings.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
62
André Navarra
André Navarra, a great cello player born in Bayonne on October 13, 1911, the same day of the year as Jacques Doué in 1930, is the inspiration for the technique object of this study, related to the practice of string changes, following a melodic line of widely separated intervals. A great variety of articulations will be used here: accents, separated notes, détaché bow techniques, spiccato, and bow strikes of 1 note for 2 linked notes.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
73
Sally Van den Berg
I dedicate this study to Sally Van den Berg, who was not only a great cellist, but also a very good oboe player, and who was recognized as one of the most accomplished musicians ever. The study is composed in a baroque style, alternating phrases in lose notes in détaché with progressive passages of 1 not by 3 linked ones and vice versa. The musical progressions come one after the other and produce a stupendous musicality. They must be practices again and again to achieve a greater quality of interpretation.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
74
Denise Djokic
A study designed to practice the technique of détaché, with interesting passages of a certain degree of difficulty for the left hand, as well as changes of strings that are slightly difficult. The cantabile spirit, euphoric and gay, is obvious throughout the study.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
81
Iracema de Andrade
A study focused on the détaché technique, together with string changes, using part of the high register. As one works the bow, one can detect a slight difference in the detaché between the lower and the higher sounds. One will have to pay attention to the way one does the strikes, in order to obtain a rich sound in both cases.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
84
Jean- Louis Duport
A truly baroque style study, recalling this cellist’s Study No. 6, where the détaché is the main point to be worked on, in alternance with other types of bow strikes. An excellent exercise to work on string changes.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
dotted note
27
Antonio Janigro
This study deals with the dotted notes, French style, a rhythmic combination of a quaver with a dotted note and a semi-quaver, the latter being done “late and quickly”, so it ends being semi-demi-quaver. This phenomenon is reached on free strings as well as in legato. It will also be useful to practice it on double strings and accords.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
elbow work
2
David Popper
In this étude, one will practice arpeggios in both their ascending and descending forms, while respecting the natural dynamics. One will use varied positions of the left hand and the bow wok will be used to exercise the elbow, due to the change of strings. The legato character of the bow is especially recommended for a cantabile interpretation, even though the notes are placed apart. The practice of this study is excellent if one wants to develop the flexibility and energy of the right wrist and fingers,
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
10
Paul Tortelier
In this étude, bow strokes of 1 note versus 3 are interspersed with accents and changes of strings. A good use of the right elbow, together with the flexibility of hand and fingers, will allow for a well-balanced bow and no strokes, thereby avoiding the famous “syndrome of the donkey”.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
13
Aldo Parisot
This study is made of a succession of harmonious connections, using bow strokes of two linked notes, as well as 1 versus 3, working on the change of strings and on the complete handling of position changes in the left hand. One should note the curved trajectory of the right elbow necessary to change strings in a perfect manner; here it becomes fundamental to anticipate the movement of the elbow,
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
17
Mischa Maisky
In this study, one will use a series of strokes of two linked notes for two separated notes, and the resulting “perpetuum mobile” motif changes strings continuously, resulting in ascending arpeggios then following them in descending order. It is of the utmost importance to lower the right elbow every time one reaches the lower strings. Anticipating this is primordial.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
25
Cristine Walevska
An important study to practice the descending change of strings, that is, from the 1st to the 4th, one will use strokes of 2 linked notes for 2 notes played apart. It is quite important to respect the vibrato and the work of the right elbow. One should stress the difference between the two voices in order to obtain the polyphony.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
32
Miklós Perényi
A study to practice the change of strings, keeping a uniform bow stroke from beginning to end, using 4 linked strings, using the four strings in ascending and descending arpeggios. The curved trajectory of the right elbow on one hand, and the placement of the left hand fingers on 4 strings the other, suggest an arpeggione.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
39
Alisa Weilerstein
In this study one will practice the change of strings, such as from the 1st to the 3rd, and from the 2nd to the 4th. It is recommended to practice the movement of the elbow, with the bow from a low position to a high one and vice-versa.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
54
Alfredo Piatti
This study deals with a sort of stroke of one note played down (“pull”) for 5 linked notes played up (“push”) in staccato, which is hardly conventional. You will need a great virtuosity to execute it, and even more when many string changes happen in the middle of it. By placing the right elbow in the right positions, this study will be made that much easier.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
57
Marta Roma
A perpetual study with constant changes of strings. One will work on the stroke of three linked notes for three linked notes in spiccato, which will resound greatly. In the same manner, one will observe the “leaping” stroke of three linked notes played up (“push”). The curve followed by the right elbow, from the low to the high strings, will have to be maintained constantly.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
61
Guillermo Helguera
About Guillermo Helguera, Samuel Máynez says: “He was my dear master, from whom I could say I learned most of what I know as a cello player, and he left me, without any reservation, all the technical knowledge he had acquired from the great cellist Janos Starker. For him, with my eternal gratitude, I dedicate this study about the technique and themes of string changes, which I admired so much in him, since he could master it all like nobody else, with a really surprising dexterity.” A “perpetuum mobile’ made of a succession of harmonic beats, where one has to follow a strike of 3 linked notes, played up (pushed), compensating them with 3 light notes played down (pulled). This bow strike, far from being conventional, called, according to various musicians, flying staccato, or ricochet, was used often by the composer L. Boccherini. This study aims specifically at perfecting the high-speed change of strings, opening and closing the arm with the bow, working all the while on the elbow. The short bouncing of this bow strike gives the string instruments a peculiar air of freshness.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
83
Ildefonso Cedillo
In this study, we deal with an ample range of techniques, from a simplification of the string changes, completed by a “lame” strike of 3 linked notes played downwards (push) for one note played upwards (pull) and vice-versa. The distant intervals are an invitation to check the activity of the right elbow, for a good anticipation of the bow strike.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
index
7
Leopoldo Téllez
The purpose of this study is the alternation of the free spiccato and the legato in groups of bow strokes linked 2 for 2, as well as a constant change of strings. The index of the right hand does strenuous work, lifting the weight of the bow to separate it from the strimg, thereby obtaining a richer resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
60
Zara Nelsova
Zara Nelsova is considered as one of the best female cello players, not only because of her great technical prowess and her masterful interpretations, but also because she has achieved one of the most powerful and penetrating sounds produced by a cello. In this study, a great variety of strokes is achieved, as well as the use of the right index finger to alleviate the contact of the bow with the strings, which is fundamental is one is to let the instrument breathe and sound.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
legato
2
David Popper
In this étude, one will practice arpeggios in both their ascending and descending forms, while respecting the natural dynamics. One will use varied positions of the left hand and the bow wok will be used to exercise the elbow, due to the change of strings. The legato character of the bow is especially recommended for a cantabile interpretation, even though the notes are placed apart. The practice of this study is excellent if one wants to develop the flexibility and energy of the right wrist and fingers,
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
7
Leopoldo Téllez
The purpose of this study is the alternation of the free spiccato and the legato in groups of bow strokes linked 2 for 2, as well as a constant change of strings. The index of the right hand does strenuous work, lifting the weight of the bow to separate it from the strimg, thereby obtaining a richer resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
27
Antonio Janigro
This study deals with the dotted notes, French style, a rhythmic combination of a quaver with a dotted note and a semi-quaver, the latter being done “late and quickly”, so it ends being semi-demi-quaver. This phenomenon is reached on free strings as well as in legato. It will also be useful to practice it on double strings and accords.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
44
Julian Lloyd Webber
In this study, one will practice three different kinds of strokes, and lighten up the pickup beat (anacrusis), a problem found with many students who thus tend to harden the dimmer passages, preventing the music to flow freely. The legato, though with a large number of free notes, is made more noticeable, as one should pay special attention to the use of the wrist and fingers in order to obtain it.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
79
Harvey Shapiro
A study designed to practice the 8o. The composition used here is based on the development of a motif. The bow will be used as easily as possible, in order to focus one’s attention mainly on the left hand, and thus to obtain a nicely refined work, as one will constantly look for good changes of position, a well executed legato between the notes, and a nice musical phrasing.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
86
Eric Picard
The great variety of slightly unorthodox bow strikes is the characteristic of this study. The use of gradual ensembles almost all through the exercise, with the corresponding change of positions of the left hand, suggest a sort of slithering line which is an invitation to work on the legato, especially in the free non-staccato notes
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
linked notes
6
Lluís Claret
This étude shows the types of bow stroke most often used, i.e. that of two linked notes for 2 separated notes, on top of a constant change of strings. The tempo allows for a vibration of almost all the notes, and because of the slight modifications of tempo [agógica] the musical supports give the impression that some notes last longer than their real value, catching up with the notes that follow.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
11
Alberto Casadei
A study in “perpetuum mobile” to work on the bow stroke of double stops. Changes of strings are practiced through movements combined in set positions of the left hand. It is also used to produce harmonic sounds which contribute to the elegance and the capacity for resonance of the instrument.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
13
Aldo Parisot
This study is made of a succession of harmonious connections, using bow strokes of two linked notes, as well as 1 versus 3, working on the change of strings and on the complete handling of position changes in the left hand. One should note the curved trajectory of the right elbow necessary to change strings in a perfect manner; here it becomes fundamental to anticipate the movement of the elbow,
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
20
Natalia Gutman
In fact this study could be considered as a prelude to some suite by Bach. Various types of strokes are used, the most common being that of 2 linked notes for 2 separated ones, and vice-versa. One should pay attention to the height reached by the right elbow, especially in relation with the La string, which is quite necessary to obtain a good sound.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
24
Eduardo Vassallo
“Perpetuum mobile” study with a model of wobbling bow stroke of 1 note for 3, the remaining 2 being played free in a spiccato. Each beat is ideal to work on the changes of strings and the movement of the elbow with the bow. The resonance with vibrato, in the notes played apart as well as for the ones played together, underlines the richness of the timbre of this study.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
25
Cristine Walevska
An important study to practice the descending change of strings, that is, from the 1st to the 4th, one will use strokes of 2 linked notes for 2 notes played apart. It is quite important to respect the vibrato and the work of the right elbow. One should stress the difference between the two voices in order to obtain the polyphony.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
28
Emanuel Feuermann
A study in honor of Emmanuel Feuerman, considered as the cello player the most proficient in “passing the bow,” as his changes were imperceptible, when going from high position to low, as well as from low to high. Here we have various types of strokes: 2 linked notes for two free notes, all the way to 3 linked for 3 free or vice-versa, including also the strokes of 1 for 3.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
33
Sol Gabetta
The aim of this study is a wide change of strings, that is from the 3rd to the 1st and from the 4th to the 1st, omitting one or two intermediate strings. Furthermore, it uses a bow stroke of 1 solo note for 2 linked notes, to liberate as much as possible the movement of the right arm, through these two simultaneous maneuvers.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
38
Julius Klengel
A study designed to give the left hand a good workout, especially in the trill played vibrato. Even if the lower stroke is done on 4 linked notes within half a beat, it brings to life other interesting style propositions such as 5 linked notes for 3 loose notes played in spiccato.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
83
Ildefonso Cedillo
In this study, we deal with an ample range of techniques, from a simplification of the string changes, completed by a “lame” strike of 3 linked notes played downwards (push) for one note played upwards (pull) and vice-versa. The distant intervals are an invitation to check the activity of the right elbow, for a good anticipation of the bow strike.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
sautillé
9
Gregor Piatigorsky
This “perpetuum mobile” study is in memory of the great cllo player Gregor Piatigorsky, whose delicate spiccato and its exceptionally natural stroke were famous, but it also aims at developing this technique with the bow. It is worth mentioning the difference between spiccato and sautillé , the former being obtained with a stroking movement of the whole arm, while the latter is the result of a bow stroke done with just the hand and fingers. This is why the spiccato is limited in its speed.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
separate notes
20
Natalia Gutman
In fact this study could be considered as a prelude to some suite by Bach. Various types of strokes are used, the most common being that of 2 linked notes for 2 separated ones, and vice-versa. One should pay attention to the height reached by the right elbow, especially in relation with the La string, which is quite necessary to obtain a good sound.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
24
Eduardo Vassallo
“Perpetuum mobile” study with a model of wobbling bow stroke of 1 note for 3, the remaining 2 being played free in a spiccato. Each beat is ideal to work on the changes of strings and the movement of the elbow with the bow. The resonance with vibrato, in the notes played apart as well as for the ones played together, underlines the richness of the timbre of this study.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
25
Cristine Walevska
An important study to practice the descending change of strings, that is, from the 1st to the 4th, one will use strokes of 2 linked notes for 2 notes played apart. It is quite important to respect the vibrato and the work of the right elbow. One should stress the difference between the two voices in order to obtain the polyphony.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
28
Emanuel Feuermann
A study in honor of Emmanuel Feuerman, considered as the cello player the most proficient in “passing the bow,” as his changes were imperceptible, when going from high position to low, as well as from low to high. Here we have various types of strokes: 2 linked notes for two free notes, all the way to 3 linked for 3 free or vice-versa, including also the strokes of 1 for 3.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
33
Sol Gabetta
The aim of this study is a wide change of strings, that is from the 3rd to the 1st and from the 4th to the 1st, omitting one or two intermediate strings. Furthermore, it uses a bow stroke of 1 solo note for 2 linked notes, to liberate as much as possible the movement of the right arm, through these two simultaneous maneuvers.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
44
Julian Lloyd Webber
In this study, one will practice three different kinds of strokes, and lighten up the pickup beat (anacrusis), a problem found with many students who thus tend to harden the dimmer passages, preventing the music to flow freely. The legato, though with a large number of free notes, is made more noticeable, as one should pay special attention to the use of the wrist and fingers in order to obtain it.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
51
Maja Bogdanovic
In this study, you will work of a uniform bow stroke of one free note for 3 linked notes, but which are to be picked towards the highest, and completed by 2 free notes, played without skipping from one to the next, and which are the real conduct for the melodic line in each beat. You will also work on 3 linked notes for 3 free notes, using part of the high register of the instrument, which needs another sort of contact of the bow with the strings, to pick up the high notes. The bow is moving less for these staccato. In order for these notes to give out a good sound, they will have to be touched in different ways, according to the tessitura and to the length of the strings.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
69
Dobrochna Zubek
This is the study that best expresses the cello’s polyphonic resources, which contemporary and past composers have not explored enough. Through the whole study double strings are touched, while working on a 2-voice counterpoint. A light upward bow work is necessary in the lose notes, to avoid strained notes.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
86
Eric Picard
The great variety of slightly unorthodox bow strikes is the characteristic of this study. The use of gradual ensembles almost all through the exercise, with the corresponding change of positions of the left hand, suggest a sort of slithering line which is an invitation to work on the legato, especially in the free non-staccato notes
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
spiccato
1
Iñaki Etxepare
A comprehensive étude for the bow as well as for the left hand. It provides several techniques whereby two notes light bow strokes are linked with two legatos played staccato, with a change of strings. The spiccato bow technique is used as well as the détaché, with sections played on two strings, allowing for a full use of the register of the instrument. One should look for resonance as well as vibrato so that the sound comes out all the richer.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
7
Leopoldo Téllez
The purpose of this study is the alternation of the free spiccato and the legato in groups of bow strokes linked 2 for 2, as well as a constant change of strings. The index of the right hand does strenuous work, lifting the weight of the bow to separate it from the strimg, thereby obtaining a richer resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
9
Gregor Piatigorsky
This “perpetuum mobile” study is in memory of the great cllo player Gregor Piatigorsky, whose delicate spiccato and its exceptionally natural stroke were famous, but it also aims at developing this technique with the bow. It is worth mentioning the difference between spiccato and sautillé , the former being obtained with a stroking movement of the whole arm, while the latter is the result of a bow stroke done with just the hand and fingers. This is why the spiccato is limited in its speed.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
16
Anne Gastinel
A study that proposes to work on the bow technique “en détaché,” combining descending and ascending bow changes. Its execution can be made on the string o with spiccato, the two techniques giving two different interpretative versions.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
24
Eduardo Vassallo
“Perpetuum mobile” study with a model of wobbling bow stroke of 1 note for 3, the remaining 2 being played free in a spiccato. Each beat is ideal to work on the changes of strings and the movement of the elbow with the bow. The resonance with vibrato, in the notes played apart as well as for the ones played together, underlines the richness of the timbre of this study.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
35
Janos Starker
A study dedicated to a great cello player who knew how to combine precise technique with exquisite interpretation. What is more, among his many virtues, he could use the best bow techniques “en détaché”, what he used to call “the cut of the string.” So, this study, works of a loose stroke, “en détaché,” combining various types of strokes, with one loose note for 4 notes linked in spiccato.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
36
Franz Schubert
Using double strings is the mandatory exercise in this study. We will work light strokes as well as others in spiccato, while constantly effecting changes in the strings. Another aspect of this étude is the polyphonic proposition, where the melodic instrument will be able to accompany itself.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
38
Julius Klengel
A study designed to give the left hand a good workout, especially in the trill played vibrato. Even if the lower stroke is done on 4 linked notes within half a beat, it brings to life other interesting style propositions such as 5 linked notes for 3 loose notes played in spiccato.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
52
Yo Yo Ma
Yo Yo Ma is considered today as the best cello player in the world. His renown is due to his versatility as he explores various musical genres, and to the fact that he possesses an immense mastery of the instrument in all its aspects. YoY o Ma’s human quality is another factor that has to be underlined and from which most of us can learn. The content of the bow strokes gathered in this study varies a lot; it goes from opposing one free dotted note played up (“push”) for 2 linked notes also played up, 2 linked notes for 2 dotted linked notes, notes separated over two strings, as well as separated notes in spiccato and others in détaché. Also, one can play contrapuntal imitations, as well as intervals of 10o, 9o, and 8o, which will induce many changes of strings. In this study, one can feel a certain “Mexican Paganini.”
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
58
Victor Manuel Cortés
A study in speed. Developping dexterity for both hands. For the strokes, one will use a spiccato of 5 loose notes for 3 linked notes. The left hand will help in the practice of trills and will build up progressive passages of spiccato notes in increasing technical complexity. The laying of the loose and linked notes in a rapid tempo and in a continuous manner makes it mandatory to look for the differences between them otherwise the structure of the piece would be lost.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
62
André Navarra
André Navarra, a great cello player born in Bayonne on October 13, 1911, the same day of the year as Jacques Doué in 1930, is the inspiration for the technique object of this study, related to the practice of string changes, following a melodic line of widely separated intervals. A great variety of articulations will be used here: accents, separated notes, détaché bow techniques, spiccato, and bow strikes of 1 note for 2 linked notes.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
75
Steven Sharp
“Perpetuum mobile” study to practice the spiccato, with high speed string changes. Also included are a couple of contrasting fragments of notes linked 2 for 2. For the left hand, this exercise will also be useful in that it offers the possibility of a total change of position in the 4 strings. Lots of work is needed to obtain a clean sound between the strings, the low sounds appearing at end of each beat.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
78
Jordi Savall
The themes dealt with in this study are linked to the long change from the 4th to the 2nd string. One will also work on the double strings in spiccato. As one will be able to lift up or separate the bow from the strings during the exercise, a richer resonance will be obtained.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
88
Samuel H. Mayes
This is a highly recommendable exercise, to work on the spiccato at the same time as on very fast changes of strings. The right index finger gets a work out as it has to lift the weight of the bow in order to let the strings resonate. It is also very useful for the left hand, as one will have to try various quick changes of position, which renders this study rather difficult.
Tempo: Presto. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
staccato
1
Iñaki Etxepare
A comprehensive étude for the bow as well as for the left hand. It provides several techniques whereby two notes light bow strokes are linked with two legatos played staccato, with a change of strings. The spiccato bow technique is used as well as the détaché, with sections played on two strings, allowing for a full use of the register of the instrument. One should look for resonance as well as vibrato so that the sound comes out all the richer.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
54
Alfredo Piatti
This study deals with a sort of stroke of one note played down (“pull”) for 5 linked notes played up (“push”) in staccato, which is hardly conventional. You will need a great virtuosity to execute it, and even more when many string changes happen in the middle of it. By placing the right elbow in the right positions, this study will be made that much easier.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
61
Guillermo Helguera
About Guillermo Helguera, Samuel Máynez says: “He was my dear master, from whom I could say I learned most of what I know as a cello player, and he left me, without any reservation, all the technical knowledge he had acquired from the great cellist Janos Starker. For him, with my eternal gratitude, I dedicate this study about the technique and themes of string changes, which I admired so much in him, since he could master it all like nobody else, with a really surprising dexterity.” A “perpetuum mobile’ made of a succession of harmonic beats, where one has to follow a strike of 3 linked notes, played up (pushed), compensating them with 3 light notes played down (pulled). This bow strike, far from being conventional, called, according to various musicians, flying staccato, or ricochet, was used often by the composer L. Boccherini. This study aims specifically at perfecting the high-speed change of strings, opening and closing the arm with the bow, working all the while on the elbow. The short bouncing of this bow strike gives the string instruments a peculiar air of freshness.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
71
Frédéric Lodéon
This study tackles the sort of strikes of 2 linked notes for 2 separated notes, with one of the most common strikes as a result, but when multiple changes of strings are done, this becomes a rather difficult exercise. So, it is necessary to anticipate each change of strings rather early. In this case, the 2 separated notes can be played in staccato, to give them more character.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
90
Jacques Doué
A melodic and light study, dedicated to Jacques Doué, the old master of Iñaki Etxepare, it promotes the use of technique to produce great music, using a stroke of 2 linked notes against two notes linked in staccato, with constant changes of strings. The differentiation of the link between the first 2 notes and the 4 last notes of each beat (which have to be felt with balzato, at a deeper level), leaves a variety of unique articulation between the notes, which are linked 2 by 2.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
CLEFS
do 4° + sol
3
Truls Mork
The purpose of this étude is to tackle the great tuning difficulty when working the octaves. One should try to work them in a melodic manner, so that they become more than the usual technical prowess often heard in concerts. The transition of the bow between its changes is very interesting as it allows a cantabile expression, and leads one to achieve a musical phrasing to the very end of each phrase.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: bbb. Nivel: Superior.
12
Mstislav Rostropóvich
Set up in a high register, this study was inspired by the great cello artist Mstislav Rostropovich, who was an absolute master of the cello’s high and very high registers. One will use only positions of the thumb, as a practical bow used “en détaché.” The “hand should be held flush against the high diapason (interval)”, in the manner prescribed to his pupils by this great master. The acute tessitura is an invitation to keep a point of contact of the bow close to the bridge.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ##. Nivel: Medium-high.
34
William Molina
In general, all this study is set in the instrument’s high register, the work being on the positions of the moving thumb of the left hand. As for the bow, all the phrasing is lose. Ascending and descending musical progressions invite one to produce nuances such as those encountered in baroque music.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: ###. Nivel: Medium-high.
fa
11
Alberto Casadei
A study in “perpetuum mobile” to work on the bow stroke of double stops. Changes of strings are practiced through movements combined in set positions of the left hand. It is also used to produce harmonic sounds which contribute to the elegance and the capacity for resonance of the instrument.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
13
Aldo Parisot
This study is made of a succession of harmonious connections, using bow strokes of two linked notes, as well as 1 versus 3, working on the change of strings and on the complete handling of position changes in the left hand. One should note the curved trajectory of the right elbow necessary to change strings in a perfect manner; here it becomes fundamental to anticipate the movement of the elbow,
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
15
Heinz Seiber
A study designed to obtain the best movement of the whole arm in the bow, through well-defined changes of strings, from the 4th to the 2nd and from the 4th to the 1st. This is achieved through a “lame” bow stroke of 1 note versus 2. The use of harmonics gives the study an interesting flavor and entails a connection between the first positions and the harmonics of the La and Re strings.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
16
Anne Gastinel
A study that proposes to work on the bow technique “en détaché,” combining descending and ascending bow changes. Its execution can be made on the string o with spiccato, the two techniques giving two different interpretative versions.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
17
Mischa Maisky
In this study, one will use a series of strokes of two linked notes for two separated notes, and the resulting “perpetuum mobile” motif changes strings continuously, resulting in ascending arpeggios then following them in descending order. It is of the utmost importance to lower the right elbow every time one reaches the lower strings. Anticipating this is primordial.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
19
Pau Casals
This study is a well-deserved acknowledgment of Pau Casals, who may very well have been the greatest cello player of all times, as well as a great promoter of the Bach Suites throughout the world. Composed in the “Baroque Bach-like” style, it presents alternate quavers with semi-quavers in gradual ensembles, and with frequent changes of strings between the 1st and 3rd and back. Free bow strokes will be used, combining one for two, zero for three. It is highly recommendable to practice this exercise before tackling Bach. Attacking the notes, for a better articulation, will yield an interesting result if combined with a good vibrato, which will soften it, thereby generating a good resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
22
Daniil Shafran
This study is designed specifically to practice the intense “détaché,” a rapid change of strings, and the coordination that should exist between the bow and the left hand. For a good control of the sound, one should pay particular attention to the place where the bow should bounce; the low sounds will arise closer to the heel of the bow, and they will become more acute the further the point of contact slides, until one reaches the point of balance, half-way through the bow.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
24
Eduardo Vassallo
“Perpetuum mobile” study with a model of wobbling bow stroke of 1 note for 3, the remaining 2 being played free in a spiccato. Each beat is ideal to work on the changes of strings and the movement of the elbow with the bow. The resonance with vibrato, in the notes played apart as well as for the ones played together, underlines the richness of the timbre of this study.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
25
Cristine Walevska
An important study to practice the descending change of strings, that is, from the 1st to the 4th, one will use strokes of 2 linked notes for 2 notes played apart. It is quite important to respect the vibrato and the work of the right elbow. One should stress the difference between the two voices in order to obtain the polyphony.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
28
Emanuel Feuermann
A study in honor of Emmanuel Feuerman, considered as the cello player the most proficient in “passing the bow,” as his changes were imperceptible, when going from high position to low, as well as from low to high. Here we have various types of strokes: 2 linked notes for two free notes, all the way to 3 linked for 3 free or vice-versa, including also the strokes of 1 for 3.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
32
Miklós Perényi
A study to practice the change of strings, keeping a uniform bow stroke from beginning to end, using 4 linked strings, using the four strings in ascending and descending arpeggios. The curved trajectory of the right elbow on one hand, and the placement of the left hand fingers on 4 strings the other, suggest an arpeggione.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
33
Sol Gabetta
The aim of this study is a wide change of strings, that is from the 3rd to the 1st and from the 4th to the 1st, omitting one or two intermediate strings. Furthermore, it uses a bow stroke of 1 solo note for 2 linked notes, to liberate as much as possible the movement of the right arm, through these two simultaneous maneuvers.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
39
Alisa Weilerstein
In this study one will practice the change of strings, such as from the 1st to the 3rd, and from the 2nd to the 4th. It is recommended to practice the movement of the elbow, with the bow from a low position to a high one and vice-versa.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
43
Ignacio Mariscal
A special study to work on asymmetrical strokes of 1 note for 4, together with changes of the free strings. This type of stroke must be done very lightly as one pushes (up-bow) and without going too far, thereby avoiding to accentuate the first note of the following beat.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
45
Carlos Prieto
A study composed in a baroque style. “Lame” strokes are used, 2 linked notes versus 1, 1 versus 4, and 1 versus 5. One can also practice changes of strings, paying attention to the musicality of two entities.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ####. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
54
Alfredo Piatti
This study deals with a sort of stroke of one note played down (“pull”) for 5 linked notes played up (“push”) in staccato, which is hardly conventional. You will need a great virtuosity to execute it, and even more when many string changes happen in the middle of it. By placing the right elbow in the right positions, this study will be made that much easier.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
56
Inbal Segev
This study concentrates on the loose bow stroke in détaché, also using several changes of strings, due to the presence of a short passage where one must use a variation of this stroke of three linked notes for three notes set apart. One must maintain the vibrato and constantly control the height of the right elbow
Tempo: Vivo. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
57
Marta Roma
A perpetual study with constant changes of strings. One will work on the stroke of three linked notes for three linked notes in spiccato, which will resound greatly. In the same manner, one will observe the “leaping” stroke of three linked notes played up (“push”). The curve followed by the right elbow, from the low to the high strings, will have to be maintained constantly.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
58
Victor Manuel Cortés
A study in speed. Developping dexterity for both hands. For the strokes, one will use a spiccato of 5 loose notes for 3 linked notes. The left hand will help in the practice of trills and will build up progressive passages of spiccato notes in increasing technical complexity. The laying of the loose and linked notes in a rapid tempo and in a continuous manner makes it mandatory to look for the differences between them otherwise the structure of the piece would be lost.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
59
Philippe Müller
This study could be called a Fandango. Double strings are works in this piece, mainly in intervals of 6th. One needs to reposition the bow heel in order to achieve a rhythmic doubling of the semi- quavers in “détaché,” the way it appears in some quintet of the beloved Luigi Boccherini. A few passages will also exist, where the accent is placed on a change of strings where one must achieve a good elbow height, to obtain a good sound quality for all the strings.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
60
Zara Nelsova
Zara Nelsova is considered as one of the best female cello players, not only because of her great technical prowess and her masterful interpretations, but also because she has achieved one of the most powerful and penetrating sounds produced by a cello. In this study, a great variety of strokes is achieved, as well as the use of the right index finger to alleviate the contact of the bow with the strings, which is fundamental is one is to let the instrument breathe and sound.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
63
Johann Sebastian Bach
A study inspired by a famous prelude for piano composed by thios famous musician. We will try to develop a ritenuto legato played up (pushed). The “perpetuum mobile” will be achieved in the following way: 1 free note “pushed”, for 5 notes “pushed”, adding 2 free notes with a change of strings. We should pay special attention so the end of each beat should not be excessively accentuated, just as it appears in the prelude to the Suite in Sol Major.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
66
Valentin Mirkov
A study that focuses on simultaneously asymmetrical strikes of 1 note played upward (pull) for 2 linked notes played downward (push). This combination is repeated and on the last part of the beat a change is made to 2 free notes. This formula stays as such during all the study, which is not the only difficulty, as a second difficulty is added in the “change of strings hacia la punta”. The movement of the elbow should be as fluid as possible during the whole process. The vibrato is possible all through the study.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
68
Franz Joseph Haydn
In this study one will tackle the chords of 3 and 4 sounds, alternating with double strings, in a kind of march that offers a good polyphony. It is important to know when to lift the bow from the strings after a few chords, to let the resonance flow.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
69
Dobrochna Zubek
This is the study that best expresses the cello’s polyphonic resources, which contemporary and past composers have not explored enough. Through the whole study double strings are touched, while working on a 2-voice counterpoint. A light upward bow work is necessary in the lose notes, to avoid strained notes.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
73
Sally Van den Berg
I dedicate this study to Sally Van den Berg, who was not only a great cellist, but also a very good oboe player, and who was recognized as one of the most accomplished musicians ever. The study is composed in a baroque style, alternating phrases in lose notes in détaché with progressive passages of 1 not by 3 linked ones and vice versa. The musical progressions come one after the other and produce a stupendous musicality. They must be practices again and again to achieve a greater quality of interpretation.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
75
Steven Sharp
“Perpetuum mobile” study to practice the spiccato, with high speed string changes. Also included are a couple of contrasting fragments of notes linked 2 for 2. For the left hand, this exercise will also be useful in that it offers the possibility of a total change of position in the 4 strings. Lots of work is needed to obtain a clean sound between the strings, the low sounds appearing at end of each beat.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
78
Jordi Savall
The themes dealt with in this study are linked to the long change from the 4th to the 2nd string. One will also work on the double strings in spiccato. As one will be able to lift up or separate the bow from the strings during the exercise, a richer resonance will be obtained.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
90
Jacques Doué
A melodic and light study, dedicated to Jacques Doué, the old master of Iñaki Etxepare, it promotes the use of technique to produce great music, using a stroke of 2 linked notes against two notes linked in staccato, with constant changes of strings. The differentiation of the link between the first 2 notes and the 4 last notes of each beat (which have to be felt with balzato, at a deeper level), leaves a variety of unique articulation between the notes, which are linked 2 by 2.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
fa + do 4°
5
Maria Klengel
In this study, one will work on the tremolo, a resource or effect widely used in orchestral scores, tying to achieve the effect with dexterity and with a chopping motion on the string. It also includes pieces for the study of détaché bow technique, and for a better coordination between the left hand and the bow. In this case, we have a measured tremolo, in sync with the number of the notes. This study, with its varied rhythms and/or accentuations of the parts made of 4 semiquavers, is highly recommended to work on the coordination between both hands.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
6
Lluís Claret
This étude shows the types of bow stroke most often used, i.e. that of two linked notes for 2 separated notes, on top of a constant change of strings. The tempo allows for a vibration of almost all the notes, and because of the slight modifications of tempo [agógica] the musical supports give the impression that some notes last longer than their real value, catching up with the notes that follow.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
7
Leopoldo Téllez
The purpose of this study is the alternation of the free spiccato and the legato in groups of bow strokes linked 2 for 2, as well as a constant change of strings. The index of the right hand does strenuous work, lifting the weight of the bow to separate it from the strimg, thereby obtaining a richer resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
8
Pierre Fournier
This study is focused on the left hand. Wok will be done on double strings in 6o intervals, together with a few chords on three strings, working on several positions. One should interpret it rather freely in a tempo a piacere. The vibrato on double strings will come out better if one is not too fast, and, sometimes, the absence of vibrato can be artistically pleasant. The bow sostenuto provides a good exercise for the right am.
Tempo: Adagio. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
9
Gregor Piatigorsky
This “perpetuum mobile” study is in memory of the great cllo player Gregor Piatigorsky, whose delicate spiccato and its exceptionally natural stroke were famous, but it also aims at developing this technique with the bow. It is worth mentioning the difference between spiccato and sautillé , the former being obtained with a stroking movement of the whole arm, while the latter is the result of a bow stroke done with just the hand and fingers. This is why the spiccato is limited in its speed.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
21
Gaspar Cassadó
In this study we have a great variety of bow strokes, starting with 6 linked notes, 3 linked notes for 3 notes apart, until one reaches various “wobbling” 1 note strokes for 5 linked note and vice-versa; string changes are also practiced. The musical discourse, with such a variety of strokes, mixes well with strong musical emphasis in a number of notes, to obtain really elegant passages, in the very spirit of Maestro Gaspar Cassádo.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
23
Xavier Gagnepain
A special study, for wobbling bow strokes of 1 note for 6, 3 for 1, 1 for 3, and 1 for 4. The feeling of the phrases and sub-phrases is made evident for a musically fine interpretation.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
26
Ludwig van Beethoven
Inspired by Beethoven’s famous Pathetic Sonata. Here we have a great variety of bow work, that goes from free strokes to linked ones, with changes of strings. There is no predetermined formal pattern of organization; one will work mainly with the sudden dynamics of immediately contrasting nuances. The character of the theme’s anacrusis, and the composition in 3 over 4, leads one to search for a musical passage reaching for certain beats, where it will either rest a bit or take flight again.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
27
Antonio Janigro
This study deals with the dotted notes, French style, a rhythmic combination of a quaver with a dotted note and a semi-quaver, the latter being done “late and quickly”, so it ends being semi-demi-quaver. This phenomenon is reached on free strings as well as in legato. It will also be useful to practice it on double strings and accords.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
29
Luigi Boccherini
This study is thus dedicated because of the many ornaments that this composer used to include in his works. In practice, we will find trills, miniature trills and grupettos. In many of the Lucca Master’s compositions, the ornaments are not even described, leaving their interpretation to the choice of the interpreter. Very elegant.
Tempo: Adagio. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
30
Arturo Toscanini
Here we will work on a rapid and energetic change of strings, with a technique of stroke “en détaché,” with a feeling for the various phrases that is very important to discern the implied various grades of intensity.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
31
Piotr Ilich Tchaikovsky
This study recreates the atmosphere of one of the most important works ever written by Tchaikoforky: the Nutcracker. It will be used to work on double strings in 6o intervals in its opening section, followed by a rhythmic extension that will use various recourses. The bow stroke is almost a balzato for double strings.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
35
Janos Starker
A study dedicated to a great cello player who knew how to combine precise technique with exquisite interpretation. What is more, among his many virtues, he could use the best bow techniques “en détaché”, what he used to call “the cut of the string.” So, this study, works of a loose stroke, “en détaché,” combining various types of strokes, with one loose note for 4 notes linked in spiccato.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
36
Franz Schubert
Using double strings is the mandatory exercise in this study. We will work light strokes as well as others in spiccato, while constantly effecting changes in the strings. Another aspect of this étude is the polyphonic proposition, where the melodic instrument will be able to accompany itself.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
37
Antonio Vivaldi
A study composed in the Baroque style. The bow stroke will be worked loosely, “en détaché,” while some short fragments will use another type of stroke. Two personas can be heard in this study, which is usual in many pieces of Antonio Vivaldi. The “vivaldian” character, played “Mexican style” can be heard throughout the whole study.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
38
Julius Klengel
A study designed to give the left hand a good workout, especially in the trill played vibrato. Even if the lower stroke is done on 4 linked notes within half a beat, it brings to life other interesting style propositions such as 5 linked notes for 3 loose notes played in spiccato.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
41
Jacqueline du Pré
3 techniques are worked on in this study: the first is related to a large change of strings from the 4th to the 1st, as well as from the 3rd to the 1st; then we have 1 loose note for 3 linked notes; finally, we work on loose strokes “en détaché.”
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
42
Asier Polo
The objective of this study is the change of strings of 3 linked notes by pulling (down-bow) for 3 free notes, also while changing strings. This is to be complemented by symmetrical bow strokes 3 by 3, and with “lame” strokes of 1 note for 5. One should pay special attention to the “syndrome of the donkey”; that is to say one should avoid pulling on the 1st of the 3 free notes.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
44
Julian Lloyd Webber
In this study, one will practice three different kinds of strokes, and lighten up the pickup beat (anacrusis), a problem found with many students who thus tend to harden the dimmer passages, preventing the music to flow freely. The legato, though with a large number of free notes, is made more noticeable, as one should pay special attention to the use of the wrist and fingers in order to obtain it.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
46
Álvaro Bitran
This study proposes an ample variety of bow strokes: linked 3 for 3, linked 2 for 2, “lame” 1 for 3 and 1 for 5. The cantabile character of the piece invites us to keep the vibrato alive.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
47
Imre Hartman
This study works mainly on the change of strings, but in this case one will start from the high part 0f the 1st string, all the way to the low part of the 4th. One will build up strokes of 1 note for 2 linked notes staccato; some passages will be dealt in the reverse mode. A light right elbow is essential for a good control of the bow, as well as is the work done by the right index to “lift up the weight of the bow” and let the strings resonate.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
48
Anner Bylsma
The purpose of this study is to work with the left hand on the first 4 positions. The sort of stroke one has to use is a combination of détaché on the string with a lighter sautillé. The simultaneous semi-quavers and quavers make more evident the work on the difference of a shorter bow for the first ones and another slightly longer for the second ones.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
50
Lynn Harrell
The purpose of this study is aimed at the bow. One will combine 2 types of strokes in each beat: 1 note for 3 linked notes, completing the movement with 4 separate notes “en détaché” but with a legato character, keeping a constant change of strings.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
52
Yo Yo Ma
Yo Yo Ma is considered today as the best cello player in the world. His renown is due to his versatility as he explores various musical genres, and to the fact that he possesses an immense mastery of the instrument in all its aspects. YoY o Ma’s human quality is another factor that has to be underlined and from which most of us can learn. The content of the bow strokes gathered in this study varies a lot; it goes from opposing one free dotted note played up (“push”) for 2 linked notes also played up, 2 linked notes for 2 dotted linked notes, notes separated over two strings, as well as separated notes in spiccato and others in détaché. Also, one can play contrapuntal imitations, as well as intervals of 10o, 9o, and 8o, which will induce many changes of strings. In this study, one can feel a certain “Mexican Paganini.”
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
61
Guillermo Helguera
About Guillermo Helguera, Samuel Máynez says: “He was my dear master, from whom I could say I learned most of what I know as a cello player, and he left me, without any reservation, all the technical knowledge he had acquired from the great cellist Janos Starker. For him, with my eternal gratitude, I dedicate this study about the technique and themes of string changes, which I admired so much in him, since he could master it all like nobody else, with a really surprising dexterity.” A “perpetuum mobile’ made of a succession of harmonic beats, where one has to follow a strike of 3 linked notes, played up (pushed), compensating them with 3 light notes played down (pulled). This bow strike, far from being conventional, called, according to various musicians, flying staccato, or ricochet, was used often by the composer L. Boccherini. This study aims specifically at perfecting the high-speed change of strings, opening and closing the arm with the bow, working all the while on the elbow. The short bouncing of this bow strike gives the string instruments a peculiar air of freshness.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
62
André Navarra
André Navarra, a great cello player born in Bayonne on October 13, 1911, the same day of the year as Jacques Doué in 1930, is the inspiration for the technique object of this study, related to the practice of string changes, following a melodic line of widely separated intervals. A great variety of articulations will be used here: accents, separated notes, détaché bow techniques, spiccato, and bow strikes of 1 note for 2 linked notes.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
64
Stefan Popov
This study is designed to practice several types of bow strikes, which go from 1 note for 3 linked notes staccato, or just linked in a unique beat, alternating them with light strikes of 2 for 2 in the following beat. Further one, this combination will have 1 note for 7 linked notes, and finally 5 free notes for 3 linked notes. The meter can be every two beats or every beat, according to the musical phrase.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
67
Antonín Dvorak
In this étude, polyphonic possibilities are explored, when using the instrument with 2 strings simultaneously. The difficulty here will be the ability of the performer to resist the urge to press the bow too much on exactly 2 strings during the exercise. It is a great exercise to practice the sostenuto, the presence or not of the vibrato, and to obtain a deep musical discourse, which in this case is of the most exquisite quality.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
70
Joseph Weigl
A study composed especially for the practice of 3 and 4 string chords or sounds. To execute the chords, one can use: arpeggiato 2 notes for 2, 1 for 3, 2-1 for 1, etc. It can be helpful to recognize the various chords in Bach’s Suites.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
71
Frédéric Lodéon
This study tackles the sort of strikes of 2 linked notes for 2 separated notes, with one of the most common strikes as a result, but when multiple changes of strings are done, this becomes a rather difficult exercise. So, it is necessary to anticipate each change of strings rather early. In this case, the 2 separated notes can be played in staccato, to give them more character.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
72
Sebastian Lee
Study for double strings, stressing the instrument’s capacity to be accompanied, with the sensation that one is hearing 2 cellos at times. A greater variety of bow strikes than in the other exercises is introduced. The bow can play one piece separating each of the double strings, in order to avoid playing legato in that case.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
76
Milene Aliverti
This study presents 2 sorts of difficulties: one for the bow, as it offers a great number of string changes, and one for the left hand, which must constantly change position. The coordination between both requires a good anticipation on both hands in order to obtain good tuning and harmonious sounds.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bbbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
79
Harvey Shapiro
A study designed to practice the 8o. The composition used here is based on the development of a motif. The bow will be used as easily as possible, in order to focus one’s attention mainly on the left hand, and thus to obtain a nicely refined work, as one will constantly look for good changes of position, a well executed legato between the notes, and a nice musical phrasing.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
82
Peter Lewy
A study that focuses on the application of learned techniques to better serve the music. This will be the main applicatiom for all the studies gathered here. One will demonstrate the versatility and the vast range of bow strikes which a cellist must have in his repertory.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
83
Ildefonso Cedillo
In this study, we deal with an ample range of techniques, from a simplification of the string changes, completed by a “lame” strike of 3 linked notes played downwards (push) for one note played upwards (pull) and vice-versa. The distant intervals are an invitation to check the activity of the right elbow, for a good anticipation of the bow strike.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
84
Jean- Louis Duport
A truly baroque style study, recalling this cellist’s Study No. 6, where the détaché is the main point to be worked on, in alternance with other types of bow strikes. An excellent exercise to work on string changes.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
85
Jimena Giménez Cacho
A study where the first 5 positions of the left hand are used, and various types of strikes for the bow: free notes, linked two for two, 3 linked for 1, etc. It’s a good exercise for intermediate levels and to work on the tonality of the Mi Flat Major.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
86
Eric Picard
The great variety of slightly unorthodox bow strikes is the characteristic of this study. The use of gradual ensembles almost all through the exercise, with the corresponding change of positions of the left hand, suggest a sort of slithering line which is an invitation to work on the legato, especially in the free non-staccato notes
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
87
Gautier Capuçon
In this study, we will work double strings in 6o, with constant changes of strings, in loose strokes. I also have included strokes of linked strings going 2 for 2. The variety of the strokes demands that one should make the difference between what is linked, what is loose but skipped, and what is linked but plucked.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
88
Samuel H. Mayes
This is a highly recommendable exercise, to work on the spiccato at the same time as on very fast changes of strings. The right index finger gets a work out as it has to lift the weight of the bow in order to let the strings resonate. It is also very useful for the left hand, as one will have to try various quick changes of position, which renders this study rather difficult.
Tempo: Presto. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
89
Maurice Maréchal
This study is interesting in that it takes one to make up for the “lame” bow stroke of 5 linked notes for 3 loose ones, which necessitates going softly on the 3 loose notes. It also comprises linked strokes of 4 notes for 4 notes. The left hand will follow a model mandated by the practice of the trill and the simplification of the exercise of the 3rd and 4th fingers.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
fa + do 4° + sol
1
Iñaki Etxepare
A comprehensive étude for the bow as well as for the left hand. It provides several techniques whereby two notes light bow strokes are linked with two legatos played staccato, with a change of strings. The spiccato bow technique is used as well as the détaché, with sections played on two strings, allowing for a full use of the register of the instrument. One should look for resonance as well as vibrato so that the sound comes out all the richer.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
2
David Popper
In this étude, one will practice arpeggios in both their ascending and descending forms, while respecting the natural dynamics. One will use varied positions of the left hand and the bow wok will be used to exercise the elbow, due to the change of strings. The legato character of the bow is especially recommended for a cantabile interpretation, even though the notes are placed apart. The practice of this study is excellent if one wants to develop the flexibility and energy of the right wrist and fingers,
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
4
Juan Hermida
This study is recommended for the practice of the 3o, trying to achieve flexibility in the left hand, as they are interpreted consecutively, as well as a resonant balance on double strings. The changes in position, due to a tempo andante, require a good anticipation with the left hand so as to obtain a pleasing musical discouse.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
10
Paul Tortelier
In this étude, bow strokes of 1 note versus 3 are interspersed with accents and changes of strings. A good use of the right elbow, together with the flexibility of hand and fingers, will allow for a well-balanced bow and no strokes, thereby avoiding the famous “syndrome of the donkey”.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
14
Pieter Wispelwey
This is a “perpetuum mobile” étude, designed to train in the technique of bow “en détaché” as Paganini used to play. It’s also very good to train the left hand, sliding it rapidly from one position to the next, and to work on the coordination between the bow and the left hand. It is very useful to slide the main accent from 1234 to 2341, 3412, and 4123. Changing rhythm is advised in order to obtain a good coordimation.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
18
Sebastian Bru
A very technical study, in which a model of ascending scales is set, the descent being made in separated fragments of the scale. The variety of tonalities is noted, working on the bow in order to obtain different sorts of strokes. It should be very useful to imitate a rhythmic and melodic motif with various tonalities.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
20
Natalia Gutman
In fact this study could be considered as a prelude to some suite by Bach. Various types of strokes are used, the most common being that of 2 linked notes for 2 separated ones, and vice-versa. One should pay attention to the height reached by the right elbow, especially in relation with the La string, which is quite necessary to obtain a good sound.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
40
Jian Wang
This study, which develops a musical motif, is designed to practice the 8o with the left hand, its style being easy on the bow for light strokes of 2 for 2, which induce an interesting connection between the various 8ths, succeeding each other in groups.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
49
Leonard Rose
The study proposes to recover the bow-frog, by using a technique whereby the bow is associated with a pickup beat in a baroque context where one will work on the technique of the quick détaché.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
51
Maja Bogdanovic
In this study, you will work of a uniform bow stroke of one free note for 3 linked notes, but which are to be picked towards the highest, and completed by 2 free notes, played without skipping from one to the next, and which are the real conduct for the melodic line in each beat. You will also work on 3 linked notes for 3 free notes, using part of the high register of the instrument, which needs another sort of contact of the bow with the strings, to pick up the high notes. The bow is moving less for these staccato. In order for these notes to give out a good sound, they will have to be touched in different ways, according to the tessitura and to the length of the strings.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
53
Giacomo Puccini
This study was conceived especially for the left hand. The theme here is the change of position, with very distant consecutive notes, on the same string. This will invite you to tackle delayed changes, that is, the change of place will happen on the following stroke, while one should combine the technical difficulty with the expression and the interpretative quality, just as this great opera master would have done.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: ####. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
55
Maurice Gendron
A study for the correct placement of the thumb, not only in a stationary position, but also considering the use of the “mobile” thumb, using the high registers of the 4 strings. The difficulty of this study can be said to come from the precision of the move, since, in this tessitura, the difference between tone and half-tones is rather small.
Tempo: Presto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
74
Denise Djokic
A study designed to practice the technique of détaché, with interesting passages of a certain degree of difficulty for the left hand, as well as changes of strings that are slightly difficult. The cantabile spirit, euphoric and gay, is obvious throughout the study.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
80
Efe Baltacigil
The double strings in 6o and 3o intervals are the basis of this study’s theme, as well as the constant recourse to the high register of the instrument. The “Mexican” character is made obvious in the “llorona” sonority of some passages, and calls to mind the musical “maricachi” influence. Power to the imagination!
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
81
Iracema de Andrade
A study focused on the détaché technique, together with string changes, using part of the high register. As one works the bow, one can detect a slight difference in the detaché between the lower and the higher sounds. One will have to pay attention to the way one does the strikes, in order to obtain a rich sound in both cases.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
fa + sol
65
Yorick Alexander
An exercise composed to work on the high register of the instrument in relation with the bow. We chose a loose and easy bow strike, to accentuate the difficulty the left hand has to surmount, with various dispositions of the thumb. Also included are double strings, for a more horizontal position of the bow, with little pressure in order to get a better tuning, what we could call “tuning the bow.”
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa, Sol. Nivel: Superior.
77
Jacques Offenbach
A special study to practice the position pf the thumb in various places of the fingerboard. Moving one’s thumb thus is not easy, not only because of the fact it has to move quite a bit, together with the unavoidable tension that accumulates in the finger, but also due to the fact one has to maintain a well paced tuning during all of the exercise.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa, Sol. Nivel: Superior.
DIFFICULTY LEVEL
medium
9
Gregor Piatigorsky
This “perpetuum mobile” study is in memory of the great cllo player Gregor Piatigorsky, whose delicate spiccato and its exceptionally natural stroke were famous, but it also aims at developing this technique with the bow. It is worth mentioning the difference between spiccato and sautillé , the former being obtained with a stroking movement of the whole arm, while the latter is the result of a bow stroke done with just the hand and fingers. This is why the spiccato is limited in its speed.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
11
Alberto Casadei
A study in “perpetuum mobile” to work on the bow stroke of double stops. Changes of strings are practiced through movements combined in set positions of the left hand. It is also used to produce harmonic sounds which contribute to the elegance and the capacity for resonance of the instrument.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
16
Anne Gastinel
A study that proposes to work on the bow technique “en détaché,” combining descending and ascending bow changes. Its execution can be made on the string o with spiccato, the two techniques giving two different interpretative versions.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
17
Mischa Maisky
In this study, one will use a series of strokes of two linked notes for two separated notes, and the resulting “perpetuum mobile” motif changes strings continuously, resulting in ascending arpeggios then following them in descending order. It is of the utmost importance to lower the right elbow every time one reaches the lower strings. Anticipating this is primordial.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
21
Gaspar Cassadó
In this study we have a great variety of bow strokes, starting with 6 linked notes, 3 linked notes for 3 notes apart, until one reaches various “wobbling” 1 note strokes for 5 linked note and vice-versa; string changes are also practiced. The musical discourse, with such a variety of strokes, mixes well with strong musical emphasis in a number of notes, to obtain really elegant passages, in the very spirit of Maestro Gaspar Cassádo.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
22
Daniil Shafran
This study is designed specifically to practice the intense “détaché,” a rapid change of strings, and the coordination that should exist between the bow and the left hand. For a good control of the sound, one should pay particular attention to the place where the bow should bounce; the low sounds will arise closer to the heel of the bow, and they will become more acute the further the point of contact slides, until one reaches the point of balance, half-way through the bow.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
23
Xavier Gagnepain
A special study, for wobbling bow strokes of 1 note for 6, 3 for 1, 1 for 3, and 1 for 4. The feeling of the phrases and sub-phrases is made evident for a musically fine interpretation.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
24
Eduardo Vassallo
“Perpetuum mobile” study with a model of wobbling bow stroke of 1 note for 3, the remaining 2 being played free in a spiccato. Each beat is ideal to work on the changes of strings and the movement of the elbow with the bow. The resonance with vibrato, in the notes played apart as well as for the ones played together, underlines the richness of the timbre of this study.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
25
Cristine Walevska
An important study to practice the descending change of strings, that is, from the 1st to the 4th, one will use strokes of 2 linked notes for 2 notes played apart. It is quite important to respect the vibrato and the work of the right elbow. One should stress the difference between the two voices in order to obtain the polyphony.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
28
Emanuel Feuermann
A study in honor of Emmanuel Feuerman, considered as the cello player the most proficient in “passing the bow,” as his changes were imperceptible, when going from high position to low, as well as from low to high. Here we have various types of strokes: 2 linked notes for two free notes, all the way to 3 linked for 3 free or vice-versa, including also the strokes of 1 for 3.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
33
Sol Gabetta
The aim of this study is a wide change of strings, that is from the 3rd to the 1st and from the 4th to the 1st, omitting one or two intermediate strings. Furthermore, it uses a bow stroke of 1 solo note for 2 linked notes, to liberate as much as possible the movement of the right arm, through these two simultaneous maneuvers.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
37
Antonio Vivaldi
A study composed in the Baroque style. The bow stroke will be worked loosely, “en détaché,” while some short fragments will use another type of stroke. Two personas can be heard in this study, which is usual in many pieces of Antonio Vivaldi. The “vivaldian” character, played “Mexican style” can be heard throughout the whole study.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
38
Julius Klengel
A study designed to give the left hand a good workout, especially in the trill played vibrato. Even if the lower stroke is done on 4 linked notes within half a beat, it brings to life other interesting style propositions such as 5 linked notes for 3 loose notes played in spiccato.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
43
Ignacio Mariscal
A special study to work on asymmetrical strokes of 1 note for 4, together with changes of the free strings. This type of stroke must be done very lightly as one pushes (up-bow) and without going too far, thereby avoiding to accentuate the first note of the following beat.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
50
Lynn Harrell
The purpose of this study is aimed at the bow. One will combine 2 types of strokes in each beat: 1 note for 3 linked notes, completing the movement with 4 separate notes “en détaché” but with a legato character, keeping a constant change of strings.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
56
Inbal Segev
This study concentrates on the loose bow stroke in détaché, also using several changes of strings, due to the presence of a short passage where one must use a variation of this stroke of three linked notes for three notes set apart. One must maintain the vibrato and constantly control the height of the right elbow
Tempo: Vivo. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
66
Valentin Mirkov
A study that focuses on simultaneously asymmetrical strikes of 1 note played upward (pull) for 2 linked notes played downward (push). This combination is repeated and on the last part of the beat a change is made to 2 free notes. This formula stays as such during all the study, which is not the only difficulty, as a second difficulty is added in the “change of strings hacia la punta”. The movement of the elbow should be as fluid as possible during the whole process. The vibrato is possible all through the study.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
84
Jean- Louis Duport
A truly baroque style study, recalling this cellist’s Study No. 6, where the détaché is the main point to be worked on, in alternance with other types of bow strikes. An excellent exercise to work on string changes.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
85
Jimena Giménez Cacho
A study where the first 5 positions of the left hand are used, and various types of strikes for the bow: free notes, linked two for two, 3 linked for 1, etc. It’s a good exercise for intermediate levels and to work on the tonality of the Mi Flat Major.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium.
medium-high
1
Iñaki Etxepare
A comprehensive étude for the bow as well as for the left hand. It provides several techniques whereby two notes light bow strokes are linked with two legatos played staccato, with a change of strings. The spiccato bow technique is used as well as the détaché, with sections played on two strings, allowing for a full use of the register of the instrument. One should look for resonance as well as vibrato so that the sound comes out all the richer.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
5
Maria Klengel
In this study, one will work on the tremolo, a resource or effect widely used in orchestral scores, tying to achieve the effect with dexterity and with a chopping motion on the string. It also includes pieces for the study of détaché bow technique, and for a better coordination between the left hand and the bow. In this case, we have a measured tremolo, in sync with the number of the notes. This study, with its varied rhythms and/or accentuations of the parts made of 4 semiquavers, is highly recommended to work on the coordination between both hands.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
6
Lluís Claret
This étude shows the types of bow stroke most often used, i.e. that of two linked notes for 2 separated notes, on top of a constant change of strings. The tempo allows for a vibration of almost all the notes, and because of the slight modifications of tempo [agógica] the musical supports give the impression that some notes last longer than their real value, catching up with the notes that follow.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
7
Leopoldo Téllez
The purpose of this study is the alternation of the free spiccato and the legato in groups of bow strokes linked 2 for 2, as well as a constant change of strings. The index of the right hand does strenuous work, lifting the weight of the bow to separate it from the strimg, thereby obtaining a richer resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
10
Paul Tortelier
In this étude, bow strokes of 1 note versus 3 are interspersed with accents and changes of strings. A good use of the right elbow, together with the flexibility of hand and fingers, will allow for a well-balanced bow and no strokes, thereby avoiding the famous “syndrome of the donkey”.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
12
Mstislav Rostropóvich
Set up in a high register, this study was inspired by the great cello artist Mstislav Rostropovich, who was an absolute master of the cello’s high and very high registers. One will use only positions of the thumb, as a practical bow used “en détaché.” The “hand should be held flush against the high diapason (interval)”, in the manner prescribed to his pupils by this great master. The acute tessitura is an invitation to keep a point of contact of the bow close to the bridge.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ##. Nivel: Medium-high.
13
Aldo Parisot
This study is made of a succession of harmonious connections, using bow strokes of two linked notes, as well as 1 versus 3, working on the change of strings and on the complete handling of position changes in the left hand. One should note the curved trajectory of the right elbow necessary to change strings in a perfect manner; here it becomes fundamental to anticipate the movement of the elbow,
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
14
Pieter Wispelwey
This is a “perpetuum mobile” étude, designed to train in the technique of bow “en détaché” as Paganini used to play. It’s also very good to train the left hand, sliding it rapidly from one position to the next, and to work on the coordination between the bow and the left hand. It is very useful to slide the main accent from 1234 to 2341, 3412, and 4123. Changing rhythm is advised in order to obtain a good coordimation.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
15
Heinz Seiber
A study designed to obtain the best movement of the whole arm in the bow, through well-defined changes of strings, from the 4th to the 2nd and from the 4th to the 1st. This is achieved through a “lame” bow stroke of 1 note versus 2. The use of harmonics gives the study an interesting flavor and entails a connection between the first positions and the harmonics of the La and Re strings.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
18
Sebastian Bru
A very technical study, in which a model of ascending scales is set, the descent being made in separated fragments of the scale. The variety of tonalities is noted, working on the bow in order to obtain different sorts of strokes. It should be very useful to imitate a rhythmic and melodic motif with various tonalities.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
19
Pau Casals
This study is a well-deserved acknowledgment of Pau Casals, who may very well have been the greatest cello player of all times, as well as a great promoter of the Bach Suites throughout the world. Composed in the “Baroque Bach-like” style, it presents alternate quavers with semi-quavers in gradual ensembles, and with frequent changes of strings between the 1st and 3rd and back. Free bow strokes will be used, combining one for two, zero for three. It is highly recommendable to practice this exercise before tackling Bach. Attacking the notes, for a better articulation, will yield an interesting result if combined with a good vibrato, which will soften it, thereby generating a good resonance.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
20
Natalia Gutman
In fact this study could be considered as a prelude to some suite by Bach. Various types of strokes are used, the most common being that of 2 linked notes for 2 separated ones, and vice-versa. One should pay attention to the height reached by the right elbow, especially in relation with the La string, which is quite necessary to obtain a good sound.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
26
Ludwig van Beethoven
Inspired by Beethoven’s famous Pathetic Sonata. Here we have a great variety of bow work, that goes from free strokes to linked ones, with changes of strings. There is no predetermined formal pattern of organization; one will work mainly with the sudden dynamics of immediately contrasting nuances. The character of the theme’s anacrusis, and the composition in 3 over 4, leads one to search for a musical passage reaching for certain beats, where it will either rest a bit or take flight again.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
27
Antonio Janigro
This study deals with the dotted notes, French style, a rhythmic combination of a quaver with a dotted note and a semi-quaver, the latter being done “late and quickly”, so it ends being semi-demi-quaver. This phenomenon is reached on free strings as well as in legato. It will also be useful to practice it on double strings and accords.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
29
Luigi Boccherini
This study is thus dedicated because of the many ornaments that this composer used to include in his works. In practice, we will find trills, miniature trills and grupettos. In many of the Lucca Master’s compositions, the ornaments are not even described, leaving their interpretation to the choice of the interpreter. Very elegant.
Tempo: Adagio. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
30
Arturo Toscanini
Here we will work on a rapid and energetic change of strings, with a technique of stroke “en détaché,” with a feeling for the various phrases that is very important to discern the implied various grades of intensity.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
32
Miklós Perényi
A study to practice the change of strings, keeping a uniform bow stroke from beginning to end, using 4 linked strings, using the four strings in ascending and descending arpeggios. The curved trajectory of the right elbow on one hand, and the placement of the left hand fingers on 4 strings the other, suggest an arpeggione.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
34
William Molina
In general, all this study is set in the instrument’s high register, the work being on the positions of the moving thumb of the left hand. As for the bow, all the phrasing is lose. Ascending and descending musical progressions invite one to produce nuances such as those encountered in baroque music.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: ###. Nivel: Medium-high.
35
Janos Starker
A study dedicated to a great cello player who knew how to combine precise technique with exquisite interpretation. What is more, among his many virtues, he could use the best bow techniques “en détaché”, what he used to call “the cut of the string.” So, this study, works of a loose stroke, “en détaché,” combining various types of strokes, with one loose note for 4 notes linked in spiccato.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
39
Alisa Weilerstein
In this study one will practice the change of strings, such as from the 1st to the 3rd, and from the 2nd to the 4th. It is recommended to practice the movement of the elbow, with the bow from a low position to a high one and vice-versa.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
41
Jacqueline du Pré
3 techniques are worked on in this study: the first is related to a large change of strings from the 4th to the 1st, as well as from the 3rd to the 1st; then we have 1 loose note for 3 linked notes; finally, we work on loose strokes “en détaché.”
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
42
Asier Polo
The objective of this study is the change of strings of 3 linked notes by pulling (down-bow) for 3 free notes, also while changing strings. This is to be complemented by symmetrical bow strokes 3 by 3, and with “lame” strokes of 1 note for 5. One should pay special attention to the “syndrome of the donkey”; that is to say one should avoid pulling on the 1st of the 3 free notes.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
44
Julian Lloyd Webber
In this study, one will practice three different kinds of strokes, and lighten up the pickup beat (anacrusis), a problem found with many students who thus tend to harden the dimmer passages, preventing the music to flow freely. The legato, though with a large number of free notes, is made more noticeable, as one should pay special attention to the use of the wrist and fingers in order to obtain it.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
45
Carlos Prieto
A study composed in a baroque style. “Lame” strokes are used, 2 linked notes versus 1, 1 versus 4, and 1 versus 5. One can also practice changes of strings, paying attention to the musicality of two entities.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: ####. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
46
Álvaro Bitran
This study proposes an ample variety of bow strokes: linked 3 for 3, linked 2 for 2, “lame” 1 for 3 and 1 for 5. The cantabile character of the piece invites us to keep the vibrato alive.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
47
Imre Hartman
This study works mainly on the change of strings, but in this case one will start from the high part 0f the 1st string, all the way to the low part of the 4th. One will build up strokes of 1 note for 2 linked notes staccato; some passages will be dealt in the reverse mode. A light right elbow is essential for a good control of the bow, as well as is the work done by the right index to “lift up the weight of the bow” and let the strings resonate.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
48
Anner Bylsma
The purpose of this study is to work with the left hand on the first 4 positions. The sort of stroke one has to use is a combination of détaché on the string with a lighter sautillé. The simultaneous semi-quavers and quavers make more evident the work on the difference of a shorter bow for the first ones and another slightly longer for the second ones.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
49
Leonard Rose
The study proposes to recover the bow-frog, by using a technique whereby the bow is associated with a pickup beat in a baroque context where one will work on the technique of the quick détaché.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
53
Giacomo Puccini
This study was conceived especially for the left hand. The theme here is the change of position, with very distant consecutive notes, on the same string. This will invite you to tackle delayed changes, that is, the change of place will happen on the following stroke, while one should combine the technical difficulty with the expression and the interpretative quality, just as this great opera master would have done.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: ####. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
57
Marta Roma
A perpetual study with constant changes of strings. One will work on the stroke of three linked notes for three linked notes in spiccato, which will resound greatly. In the same manner, one will observe the “leaping” stroke of three linked notes played up (“push”). The curve followed by the right elbow, from the low to the high strings, will have to be maintained constantly.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
58
Victor Manuel Cortés
A study in speed. Developping dexterity for both hands. For the strokes, one will use a spiccato of 5 loose notes for 3 linked notes. The left hand will help in the practice of trills and will build up progressive passages of spiccato notes in increasing technical complexity. The laying of the loose and linked notes in a rapid tempo and in a continuous manner makes it mandatory to look for the differences between them otherwise the structure of the piece would be lost.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
60
Zara Nelsova
Zara Nelsova is considered as one of the best female cello players, not only because of her great technical prowess and her masterful interpretations, but also because she has achieved one of the most powerful and penetrating sounds produced by a cello. In this study, a great variety of strokes is achieved, as well as the use of the right index finger to alleviate the contact of the bow with the strings, which is fundamental is one is to let the instrument breathe and sound.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
62
André Navarra
André Navarra, a great cello player born in Bayonne on October 13, 1911, the same day of the year as Jacques Doué in 1930, is the inspiration for the technique object of this study, related to the practice of string changes, following a melodic line of widely separated intervals. A great variety of articulations will be used here: accents, separated notes, détaché bow techniques, spiccato, and bow strikes of 1 note for 2 linked notes.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
63
Johann Sebastian Bach
A study inspired by a famous prelude for piano composed by thios famous musician. We will try to develop a ritenuto legato played up (pushed). The “perpetuum mobile” will be achieved in the following way: 1 free note “pushed”, for 5 notes “pushed”, adding 2 free notes with a change of strings. We should pay special attention so the end of each beat should not be excessively accentuated, just as it appears in the prelude to the Suite in Sol Major.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
64
Stefan Popov
This study is designed to practice several types of bow strikes, which go from 1 note for 3 linked notes staccato, or just linked in a unique beat, alternating them with light strikes of 2 for 2 in the following beat. Further one, this combination will have 1 note for 7 linked notes, and finally 5 free notes for 3 linked notes. The meter can be every two beats or every beat, according to the musical phrase.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
67
Antonín Dvorak
In this étude, polyphonic possibilities are explored, when using the instrument with 2 strings simultaneously. The difficulty here will be the ability of the performer to resist the urge to press the bow too much on exactly 2 strings during the exercise. It is a great exercise to practice the sostenuto, the presence or not of the vibrato, and to obtain a deep musical discourse, which in this case is of the most exquisite quality.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
68
Franz Joseph Haydn
In this study one will tackle the chords of 3 and 4 sounds, alternating with double strings, in a kind of march that offers a good polyphony. It is important to know when to lift the bow from the strings after a few chords, to let the resonance flow.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
72
Sebastian Lee
Study for double strings, stressing the instrument’s capacity to be accompanied, with the sensation that one is hearing 2 cellos at times. A greater variety of bow strikes than in the other exercises is introduced. The bow can play one piece separating each of the double strings, in order to avoid playing legato in that case.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
73
Sally Van den Berg
I dedicate this study to Sally Van den Berg, who was not only a great cellist, but also a very good oboe player, and who was recognized as one of the most accomplished musicians ever. The study is composed in a baroque style, alternating phrases in lose notes in détaché with progressive passages of 1 not by 3 linked ones and vice versa. The musical progressions come one after the other and produce a stupendous musicality. They must be practices again and again to achieve a greater quality of interpretation.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
74
Denise Djokic
A study designed to practice the technique of détaché, with interesting passages of a certain degree of difficulty for the left hand, as well as changes of strings that are slightly difficult. The cantabile spirit, euphoric and gay, is obvious throughout the study.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
75
Steven Sharp
“Perpetuum mobile” study to practice the spiccato, with high speed string changes. Also included are a couple of contrasting fragments of notes linked 2 for 2. For the left hand, this exercise will also be useful in that it offers the possibility of a total change of position in the 4 strings. Lots of work is needed to obtain a clean sound between the strings, the low sounds appearing at end of each beat.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
78
Jordi Savall
The themes dealt with in this study are linked to the long change from the 4th to the 2nd string. One will also work on the double strings in spiccato. As one will be able to lift up or separate the bow from the strings during the exercise, a richer resonance will be obtained.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: bbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
81
Iracema de Andrade
A study focused on the détaché technique, together with string changes, using part of the high register. As one works the bow, one can detect a slight difference in the detaché between the lower and the higher sounds. One will have to pay attention to the way one does the strikes, in order to obtain a rich sound in both cases.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
82
Peter Lewy
A study that focuses on the application of learned techniques to better serve the music. This will be the main applicatiom for all the studies gathered here. One will demonstrate the versatility and the vast range of bow strikes which a cellist must have in his repertory.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
83
Ildefonso Cedillo
In this study, we deal with an ample range of techniques, from a simplification of the string changes, completed by a “lame” strike of 3 linked notes played downwards (push) for one note played upwards (pull) and vice-versa. The distant intervals are an invitation to check the activity of the right elbow, for a good anticipation of the bow strike.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
86
Eric Picard
The great variety of slightly unorthodox bow strikes is the characteristic of this study. The use of gradual ensembles almost all through the exercise, with the corresponding change of positions of the left hand, suggest a sort of slithering line which is an invitation to work on the legato, especially in the free non-staccato notes
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
89
Maurice Maréchal
This study is interesting in that it takes one to make up for the “lame” bow stroke of 5 linked notes for 3 loose ones, which necessitates going softly on the 3 loose notes. It also comprises linked strokes of 4 notes for 4 notes. The left hand will follow a model mandated by the practice of the trill and the simplification of the exercise of the 3rd and 4th fingers.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Medium-high.
superior
2
David Popper
In this étude, one will practice arpeggios in both their ascending and descending forms, while respecting the natural dynamics. One will use varied positions of the left hand and the bow wok will be used to exercise the elbow, due to the change of strings. The legato character of the bow is especially recommended for a cantabile interpretation, even though the notes are placed apart. The practice of this study is excellent if one wants to develop the flexibility and energy of the right wrist and fingers,
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
3
Truls Mork
The purpose of this étude is to tackle the great tuning difficulty when working the octaves. One should try to work them in a melodic manner, so that they become more than the usual technical prowess often heard in concerts. The transition of the bow between its changes is very interesting as it allows a cantabile expression, and leads one to achieve a musical phrasing to the very end of each phrase.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: bbb. Nivel: Superior.
4
Juan Hermida
This study is recommended for the practice of the 3o, trying to achieve flexibility in the left hand, as they are interpreted consecutively, as well as a resonant balance on double strings. The changes in position, due to a tempo andante, require a good anticipation with the left hand so as to obtain a pleasing musical discouse.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
8
Pierre Fournier
This study is focused on the left hand. Wok will be done on double strings in 6o intervals, together with a few chords on three strings, working on several positions. One should interpret it rather freely in a tempo a piacere. The vibrato on double strings will come out better if one is not too fast, and, sometimes, the absence of vibrato can be artistically pleasant. The bow sostenuto provides a good exercise for the right am.
Tempo: Adagio. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
31
Piotr Ilich Tchaikovsky
This study recreates the atmosphere of one of the most important works ever written by Tchaikoforky: the Nutcracker. It will be used to work on double strings in 6o intervals in its opening section, followed by a rhythmic extension that will use various recourses. The bow stroke is almost a balzato for double strings.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
36
Franz Schubert
Using double strings is the mandatory exercise in this study. We will work light strokes as well as others in spiccato, while constantly effecting changes in the strings. Another aspect of this étude is the polyphonic proposition, where the melodic instrument will be able to accompany itself.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
40
Jian Wang
This study, which develops a musical motif, is designed to practice the 8o with the left hand, its style being easy on the bow for light strokes of 2 for 2, which induce an interesting connection between the various 8ths, succeeding each other in groups.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
51
Maja Bogdanovic
In this study, you will work of a uniform bow stroke of one free note for 3 linked notes, but which are to be picked towards the highest, and completed by 2 free notes, played without skipping from one to the next, and which are the real conduct for the melodic line in each beat. You will also work on 3 linked notes for 3 free notes, using part of the high register of the instrument, which needs another sort of contact of the bow with the strings, to pick up the high notes. The bow is moving less for these staccato. In order for these notes to give out a good sound, they will have to be touched in different ways, according to the tessitura and to the length of the strings.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
52
Yo Yo Ma
Yo Yo Ma is considered today as the best cello player in the world. His renown is due to his versatility as he explores various musical genres, and to the fact that he possesses an immense mastery of the instrument in all its aspects. YoY o Ma’s human quality is another factor that has to be underlined and from which most of us can learn. The content of the bow strokes gathered in this study varies a lot; it goes from opposing one free dotted note played up (“push”) for 2 linked notes also played up, 2 linked notes for 2 dotted linked notes, notes separated over two strings, as well as separated notes in spiccato and others in détaché. Also, one can play contrapuntal imitations, as well as intervals of 10o, 9o, and 8o, which will induce many changes of strings. In this study, one can feel a certain “Mexican Paganini.”
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
54
Alfredo Piatti
This study deals with a sort of stroke of one note played down (“pull”) for 5 linked notes played up (“push”) in staccato, which is hardly conventional. You will need a great virtuosity to execute it, and even more when many string changes happen in the middle of it. By placing the right elbow in the right positions, this study will be made that much easier.
Tempo: Vivace. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
55
Maurice Gendron
A study for the correct placement of the thumb, not only in a stationary position, but also considering the use of the “mobile” thumb, using the high registers of the 4 strings. The difficulty of this study can be said to come from the precision of the move, since, in this tessitura, the difference between tone and half-tones is rather small.
Tempo: Presto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
59
Philippe Müller
This study could be called a Fandango. Double strings are works in this piece, mainly in intervals of 6th. One needs to reposition the bow heel in order to achieve a rhythmic doubling of the semi- quavers in “détaché,” the way it appears in some quintet of the beloved Luigi Boccherini. A few passages will also exist, where the accent is placed on a change of strings where one must achieve a good elbow height, to obtain a good sound quality for all the strings.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
61
Guillermo Helguera
About Guillermo Helguera, Samuel Máynez says: “He was my dear master, from whom I could say I learned most of what I know as a cello player, and he left me, without any reservation, all the technical knowledge he had acquired from the great cellist Janos Starker. For him, with my eternal gratitude, I dedicate this study about the technique and themes of string changes, which I admired so much in him, since he could master it all like nobody else, with a really surprising dexterity.” A “perpetuum mobile’ made of a succession of harmonic beats, where one has to follow a strike of 3 linked notes, played up (pushed), compensating them with 3 light notes played down (pulled). This bow strike, far from being conventional, called, according to various musicians, flying staccato, or ricochet, was used often by the composer L. Boccherini. This study aims specifically at perfecting the high-speed change of strings, opening and closing the arm with the bow, working all the while on the elbow. The short bouncing of this bow strike gives the string instruments a peculiar air of freshness.
Tempo: Allegro. Key signature: 0. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
65
Yorick Alexander
An exercise composed to work on the high register of the instrument in relation with the bow. We chose a loose and easy bow strike, to accentuate the difficulty the left hand has to surmount, with various dispositions of the thumb. Also included are double strings, for a more horizontal position of the bow, with little pressure in order to get a better tuning, what we could call “tuning the bow.”
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa, Sol. Nivel: Superior.
69
Dobrochna Zubek
This is the study that best expresses the cello’s polyphonic resources, which contemporary and past composers have not explored enough. Through the whole study double strings are touched, while working on a 2-voice counterpoint. A light upward bow work is necessary in the lose notes, to avoid strained notes.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
70
Joseph Weigl
A study composed especially for the practice of 3 and 4 string chords or sounds. To execute the chords, one can use: arpeggiato 2 notes for 2, 1 for 3, 2-1 for 1, etc. It can be helpful to recognize the various chords in Bach’s Suites.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: #. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
71
Frédéric Lodéon
This study tackles the sort of strikes of 2 linked notes for 2 separated notes, with one of the most common strikes as a result, but when multiple changes of strings are done, this becomes a rather difficult exercise. So, it is necessary to anticipate each change of strings rather early. In this case, the 2 separated notes can be played in staccato, to give them more character.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
76
Milene Aliverti
This study presents 2 sorts of difficulties: one for the bow, as it offers a great number of string changes, and one for the left hand, which must constantly change position. The coordination between both requires a good anticipation on both hands in order to obtain good tuning and harmonious sounds.
Tempo: Andantino. Key signature: bbbb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
77
Jacques Offenbach
A special study to practice the position pf the thumb in various places of the fingerboard. Moving one’s thumb thus is not easy, not only because of the fact it has to move quite a bit, together with the unavoidable tension that accumulates in the finger, but also due to the fact one has to maintain a well paced tuning during all of the exercise.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa, Sol. Nivel: Superior.
79
Harvey Shapiro
A study designed to practice the 8o. The composition used here is based on the development of a motif. The bow will be used as easily as possible, in order to focus one’s attention mainly on the left hand, and thus to obtain a nicely refined work, as one will constantly look for good changes of position, a well executed legato between the notes, and a nice musical phrasing.
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
80
Efe Baltacigil
The double strings in 6o and 3o intervals are the basis of this study’s theme, as well as the constant recourse to the high register of the instrument. The “Mexican” character is made obvious in the “llorona” sonority of some passages, and calls to mind the musical “maricachi” influence. Power to the imagination!
Tempo: Andante. Key signature: ##. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
87
Gautier Capuçon
In this study, we will work double strings in 6o, with constant changes of strings, in loose strokes. I also have included strokes of linked strings going 2 for 2. The variety of the strokes demands that one should make the difference between what is linked, what is loose but skipped, and what is linked but plucked.
Tempo: Moderato. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
88
Samuel H. Mayes
This is a highly recommendable exercise, to work on the spiccato at the same time as on very fast changes of strings. The right index finger gets a work out as it has to lift the weight of the bow in order to let the strings resonate. It is also very useful for the left hand, as one will have to try various quick changes of position, which renders this study rather difficult.
Tempo: Presto. Key signature: bb. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.
90
Jacques Doué
A melodic and light study, dedicated to Jacques Doué, the old master of Iñaki Etxepare, it promotes the use of technique to produce great music, using a stroke of 2 linked notes against two notes linked in staccato, with constant changes of strings. The differentiation of the link between the first 2 notes and the 4 last notes of each beat (which have to be felt with balzato, at a deeper level), leaves a variety of unique articulation between the notes, which are linked 2 by 2.
Tempo: Allegretto. Key signature: b. Clefs : Fa. Nivel: Superior.